15
八月

公主抱負 女王使命

作者 : 雅帆   在 邁向現代 Road to Modernity

數年前,英國廣播公司 (BBC) 曾進行一項民意調查,邀請市民選出英國歷來最受愛戴的君主,結果佔第一位是「伊利沙伯一世」(Elizabeth I);第二位是「維多利亞」(Victoria);第三位則是現任的「伊利沙伯二世」(Elizabeth II),巧合的是,三位都是女王。

毋庸置疑,每位女王對國家付出偉大貢獻,伊利沙伯一世結束英國的宗教紛爭,奠定聖公會的英國國教地位,保持國家統一,確立民主議會制度,發展環航地理大探索;維多利亞憑藉海上的無敵雄師,在世界各地拓展貿易和建立殖民地,國勢鼎盛,號稱「日不落國」;伊利沙伯二世則在國力日衰的情況下,辛苦經營,仍身任十六個國家或地區的元首 (Head of State),領導和維持英聯邦54個國家或地區的聯繫。

然而,現今世界邁向民主進步,在「君主立憲」(Constitutional monarchy) 制度下的英國王室,地位日漸下降,常言道:「創業難,守業更難。」人們不禁要問,英女王今天還有甚麽角色?若要明瞭英女王與生俱來的工作,可以從解讀她的兩篇公開演辭開始。

第一篇發表於1947年4月21日,該天是她的21歲生辰,她仍然是「伊利沙伯公主」(Princess Elizabeth) 的身分,正在與父母及妹妹在南非渡假,演說在「開普敦電臺」(Cape Town Radio) 廣播。她剛剛踏入成年階段後,首次公開表明「公主抱負 — I serve」,簡單直接,就是獻身服務國家和英聯邦;並呼籲青年人與她攜手合作,提起勇氣,克服困難,為社會服務。於二次大戰之後,世人面對社會衰頹,該篇演辭能起振奮民心、激勵青年人的作用,其重點錄述如下:

【引述開始】
「‥‥I am thinking especially today of all the young men and women who were born about the same time as myself and have grown up like me in terrible and glorious years of the second world war.‥‥」

「‥‥Now that we are coming to manhood and womanhood it is surely a great joy to us all to think that we shall be able to take some of the burden off the shoulders of our elders who have fought and worked and suffered to protect our childhood.
We must not be daunted by the anxieties and hardships that the war has left behind for every nation of our commonwealth. We know that these things are the price we cheerfully undertook to pay for the high honour of standing alone, seven years ago, in defence of the liberty of the world.‥‥」

「‥‥If we all go forward together with an unwavering faith, a high courage, and a quiet heart, we shall be able to make of this ancient commonwealth, which we all love so dearly, an even grander thing – more free, more prosperous, more happy and a more powerful influence for good in the world – than it has been in the greatest days of our forefathers.
To accomplish that we must give nothing less than the whole of ourselves. There is a motto which has been borne by many of my ancestors – a noble motto, “I serve". Those words were an inspiration to many bygone heirs to the Throne when they made their knightly dedication as they came to manhood. I cannot do quite as they did.
But through the inventions of science I can do what was not possible for any of them. I can make my solemn act of dedication with a whole Empire listening. I should like to make that dedication now. It is very simple.
I declare before you all that my whole life whether it be long or short shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong.
But I shall not have strength to carry out this resolution alone unless you join in it with me, as I now invite you to do: I know that your support will be unfailingly given. God help me to make good my vow, and God bless all of you who are willing to share in it.‥‥」
【引述完畢】

1947年,伊利沙伯公主與希臘「菲臘王子」(Prince Philip of Greece) 結婚,夫婿被册封為「愛丁堡公爵」(Duke of Edinburgh),婚後立即開始履行王室任務,官式訪問法國和希臘,1951年秋天到訪加拿大。之後,菲臘王子隨皇家海軍到「馬爾他」(Malta) 服役,伊利沙伯公主則四次出訪該國,享受擔任一位海軍妻子和年靑母親的愉快生活。

然而好景不常,她的父王「喬治六世」(George VI) 由於二次大戰期間過份操勞,健康日差。1952年,喬治六世原定官訪澳洲及紐西蘭,卻因病無法成行,被迫由伊利沙伯公主和菲臘王子臨時取代。

1952年2月6日星期三,伊利沙伯公主和菲臘王子正在非洲肯雅訪問,接受森林樹居的款待,卻傳來父王駕崩的噩耗,當年25歲的公主即日繼位為「英女王伊利沙伯二世」(Queen Elizabeth II),立刻啟程回國,「首相邱吉爾」(Prime Minister Winston Churchill) 和一衆官員到機場迎接,於是留傳「上樹公主;下樹女王」的歷史故事。

1953年6月2日,英女王伊利沙伯二世於「西敏寺」(Westminster Abbey) 舉行隆重加冕儀式 (Coronation)。當天晚上,她經電臺廣播向全國人民發表演說,感謝國人的支持,承諾克盡「女王使命 — I may, by God’s Grace and Mercy, be given to reign and serve you as your Queen」,情辭懇切,誠邀國人為追尋全人類和平、公義和自由的生活而共同努力。其重點錄述如下:

【引述開始】
「‥‥The ceremonies you have seen today are ancient, and some of their origins are veiled in the mists of the past. But their spirit and their meaning shine through the ages never, perhaps, more brightly than now. I have in sincerity pledged myself to your service, as so many of you are pledged to mine. Throughout all my life and with all my heart I shall strive to be worthy of your trust. ‥‥」

「‥‥Therefore I am sure that this, my Coronation, is not the symbol of a power and a splendour that are gone but a declaration of our hopes for the future, and for the years I may, by God’s Grace and Mercy, be given to reign and serve you as your Queen.
I have been speaking of the vast regions and varied peoples to whom I owe my duty but there has also sprung from our island home a theme of social and political thought which constitutes our message to the world and through the changing generations has found acceptance both within and far beyond my Realms.
Parliamentary institutions, with their free speech and respect for the rights of minorities, and the inspiration of a broad tolerance in thought and expression – all this we conceive to be a precious part of our way of life and outlook.
During recent centuries, this message has been sustained and invigorated by the immense contribution, in language, literature, and action, of the nations of our Commonwealth overseas. It gives expression, as I pray it always will, to living principles, as sacred to the Crown and Monarchy as to its many Parliaments and Peoples. I ask you now to cherish them – and practise them too; then we can go forward together in peace, seeking justice and freedom for all men. ‥‥」
【引述完畢】

上述兩篇演辭所承諾的「公主抱負」和「女王使命」,可簡單歸納為「I serve the people」(為人民服務)。女王雖然貴為一國之君,但並不統治人民,卻以服務人民為己任,盡忠國家為依歸。雅帆至今仍然牢記,香港前殖民地政府在公函信封印上「On Her Majesty’s Service」的抬頭,雖然中文繙譯為「香港政府公函」,正確應為「女王陛下的服務」之意。

女王伊利沙伯二世(以下簡稱女王)於1926年4月21日出生,自幼性格冷静、害羞,喜歡思考,也熱愛動物。她從小就知道自己的命運,卻視出任女王為終身職守、一項不能逃避的召喚。她雖然並非一名演員,但由於王室必須經常出席不同場合,她也因應需要扮演許多恰如其份的角色。她既然貴為女王,便要經常週遊列國,應酬不同類型的世界領袖;她亦是家庭女主人,也要以身作則,養育四名子女,卻要面對三名曾經離婚,尚幸兒孫滿膝,還有八名孫兒女和一名曾孫女。

2011年5月12日,女王打破英王喬治三世的紀錄,在任21,645天,成為英國歷史上第二在位最長的君主。將來的2015年9月,若她仍然在位,則有望再打破維多利亞女王的記錄,成為第一在位最長的君主。

女王是十六個國家或地區的元首,包括:英國 (United Kingdom);澳洲 (Australia);紐西蘭 (New Zealand);加拿大 (Canada);牙買加 (Jamaica);安提瓜和巴布達 (Antigua and Barbuda);巴哈馬 (Bahamas);巴巴多斯 (Barbados);格林納達 (Grenada);伯利茲 (Belize);聖克里斯多福與尼維斯 (St. Christopher and Nevis);聖盧西亞 (St. Lucia);所羅門群島 (Solomon Islands);圖瓦盧 (Tuvalu);聖文森特和格林納丁斯 (St. Vincent and the Grenadines);及巴布亞新幾內亞 (Papua New Guinea)。她也是保護英國6千2百萬人民和其他領土共7千2百萬人民的權力機構象徵。在過去60年,她每年務必出席許多傳統儀式,包括:國會的開啟、陣亡將士悼念、軍操檢閱和宗教服務等。

女王祇是「權威」(authority) 的標緻象徵,卻沒有實際執行的「權力」(power);作為一個「統治者」(ruler),她並不「統治」人民,卻祇「服務」人民。現代的君主立憲制度,不再向人民實施高壓的統治政策,卻提供一個自由的管治模式,王室不再擔任政府職務,政府卻來自民選的國會,是自由的終極堡壘;而國會議員亦祇能享受短暫的光輝,不能擁有永久的權益。

女王代表着時代的延續,這不單是國家存在的延續,更是人民回顧過去與展望將來歷史的延續。王室的存在,也就是國家繼續存在的明顯象徵;雖然民選政府經歷換屆的過程,君主立憲制度卻能確保人民的利益獲得延續,不但跨越兩屆政府,而且更遠。

女王因應其工作必須把自己的情緒收藏起來,養成內斂性格,對事物保持中立和被動的態度。社會上的名人和演員,他們因為高調擁有某種性格而獲得報酬;相反地,女王的工作卻要求她經常保持低調。

女王每天起居有序,早上首先聆聽 BBC 電臺的新聞報導,一邊喝一壺 Earl Grey 紅茶,一邊閱讀「賽馬日報」(Racing Post) 和「每日電訊報」(Daily Telegraph)。接着,一張每天約會日誌和第一箱官方文件,已經由私人助理放置在辦公桌上,等候女王參閱。

女王雖已屆86歲高齡,但日常工作仍然繁重,必須出席許多儀式典禮、宗教活動和社會事務,週而復始。她走過大街小鎮,穿梭機場軍營,出入酒店宴會,列席教堂演廳,與兩旁企盼的市民作眼神交流。女王無須透過講談笑話或引述故事來振奮民心,她祇要在適當場合出現、微笑點頭、揮手致意,便可功德完滿。

女王既屬一名虔誠基督徒,亦是全國信仰 — 聖公會 (Anglican Church) — 的領袖,被稱為 Defender of the Faith 及 Supreme Governor of the Church of England。她負責聘任主教和大主教,並在教會事務中擔任嚴謹的角色。

女王正式擔任「最終法院」(court of final appeal) 的工作,但她絕不介入日常社會事務的爭議,讓市民享受自由討論的空間。她也負責頒授榮譽勛銜、出任三軍統帥和慈善團體贊助人。

女王還有另一項重要工作,就是自1949年開始出任「英聯邦領袖」(Head of the Commonwealth),繼續聯繫橫跨五大洲許多獨立後的前殖民地國家,包括亞洲區的印度 (India)、巴基斯坦 (Pakistan)、斯里蘭卡 (Sri Lanka)、新加坡 (Singapore)、馬來西亞 (Malaysia);非洲區的南非 (South Africa)、加納 (Ghana)、肯亞 (Kenya)、烏干達 (Uganda)、尼日利亞 (Nigeria)‥‥等等。英國外交部每年為女王精心策劃外訪行程,包括官式訪問英聯邦國家,協助推廣外交事務和商貿發展。女王每次出訪,都會悉心打扮,衣服配襯帽子,常為人們所樂道;再加上點頭握手、靜心聆聽,並不時發表演說,盡量樹立一個和藹可親的形象。

六十年來女王的工作成績,外界自有評價;然而女王又如何評核自己的表現?這可從女王在其銀禧、金禧和鑽禧登基紀念新發表的三篇演說,找到一些蛛絲馬跡。

1977年5月4日,女王在慶祝其銀禧登基紀念向國會上下議院同時發表答謝演說,強調君主立憲體制的成就、英聯邦組識的貢獻、國民身分的認同、服務公衆的傳統、關懷他人的愛心、追求自由的熱忱,其演辭重點輯錄如下:

【引述開始】
「‥‥Here, in a meeting of Sovereign and Parliament, the essence of Constitutional Monarchy is reflected.
It is a form of Government in which those who represent the main elements of the community can come together to reconcile conflicting interests and to strive for the hopes and aims we all share. It has adapted itself to the changes in our own society and in international relationships, yet it has remained true to its essential role. It has provided the fabric of good order in society and has been the guardian of the liberties of individual citizens.
These 25 years have seen much change for Britain. By virtue of tolerance and understanding, the Empire has evolved into a Commonwealth of 36 Independent Nations spanning the five Continents. No longer an Imperial Power, we have been coming to terms with what this means for ourselves and for our relations with the rest of the world.
We have forged new links with other countries and in joining the European Economic Communities we have taken what is perhaps one of the most significant decisions during my reign.
At home there are greater opportunities for all sorts and conditions of men and women. Developments in science, technology and in medicine have improved the quality and comfort of life and, of course, there has also been television!
We in Government and Parliament have to accept the challenges which this progress imposes on us. And they are considerable.
The problems of progress, the complexities of modern administration, the feeling that Metropolitan Government is too remote from the lives of ordinary men and women, these among other things have helped to revive an awareness of historic national identities in these Islands. They provide the background for the continuing and keen discussion of proposals for devolution to Scotland and Wales within the United Kingdom. ‥‥ 」

「‥‥A Jubilee is also a time to look forward! We should certainly do this with determination and I believe we can also do so with hope. We have so many advantages, the basic stability of our institutions, our traditions of public service and concern for others, our family life and, above all, the freedom which you and your predecessors in Parliament have, through the ages, so fearlessly upheld. ‥‥」
【引述完畢】

2002年6月4日,女王於「倫敦市政廳」(Guildhall, London) 出席慶祝其金禧登基紀念午宴,發表簡短答謝演說,聚焦家庭、朋友和鄰舍關係對建設社會的重要,其演辭重點輯錄如下:

【引述開始】
「‥‥I am quite convinced that these local celebrations have helped to remind people of the value of such neighbourhood events in building a genuine community spirit. ‥‥」

「‥‥I hope that these celebrations will remind us of our shared heritage and what it means to be a united people, enjoying the support of families, friends and neighbours around us. ‥‥」

「‥‥Gratitude, respect and pride, these words sum up how I feel about the people of this country and the Commonwealth – and what this Golden Jubilee means to me. ‥‥ 」
【引述完畢】

2012年3月20日,女王在慶祝其鑽禧登基紀念又向國會上下議院同時發表答謝演說,再次強調「王室與國會」(monarchs and Parliament) — 也就是代表君主與人民 — 在君主立憲體制配合下的成就,闡釋自己多年歷練並非公共服務的成功先決條件,卻可提供有效指引,亦樂意將這些經驗向年青議員們薪火相傳,並表明在家庭支持下繼續服務國家和人民的決心,其演辭重點輯錄如下:

【引述開始】
「‥‥This great institution has been at the heart of the country and the lives of our people throughout its history. As Parliamentarians, you share with your forebears a fundamental role in the laws and decisions of your own age. Parliament has survived as an unshakeable cornerstone of our constitution and our way of life.
History links monarchs and Parliament, a connecting thread from one period to the next. So, in an era when the regular, worthy rhythm of life is less eye-catching than doing something extraordinary, I am reassured that I am merely the second Sovereign to celebrate a Diamond Jubilee. ‥‥」

「‥‥I have been a regular visitor to the Palace of Westminster and, at the last count, have had the pleasurable duty of treating with twelve Prime Ministers.
Over such a period, one can observe that the experience of venerable old age can be a mighty guide but not a prerequisite for success in public office. I am therefore very pleased to be addressing many younger Parliamentarians and also those bringing such a wide range of background and experience to your vital, national work.
During these years as your Queen, the support of my family has, across the generations, been beyond measure. ‥‥」

「‥‥The happy relationship I have enjoyed with Parliament has extended well beyond the more than three and a half thousand Bills I have signed into law. I am therefore very touched by the magnificent gift before me, generously subscribed by many of you. Should this beautiful window cause just a little extra colour to shine down upon this ancient place, I should gladly settle for that.
We are reminded here of our past, of the continuity of our national story and the virtues of resilience, ingenuity and tolerance which created it. I have been privileged to witness some of that history and, with the support of my family, rededicate myself to the service of our great country and its people now and in the years to come. ‥‥」
【引述完畢】

從公主抱負,到女王使命,至鑽禧登基六十周年,女王一直以服務人民為終身職守,此志不渝。回望香港政壇,卻不難發現一些宣稱服務市民的有趣個案。「個案一」的主角是一名女高官,在本年3月之前,特首候選人甲君當選行情看漲,女高官表示萌生退休之意,已在英國購置物業,準備與丈夫及兒子團聚;及至3月之後,特首候選人乙君當選行情看漲,女高官立即改變口風,表示獲得丈夫鼓勵,準備留任政府,為香港市民服務。雅帆不禁要問,祇有當官才算服務市民?

「個案二」的主角是一名男高官,前半生聚精會神賺取金錢回報,包括投資買賣舊樓,在等候收購期間,不忘「放租劏房」謀利;後半生卻忽然醒覺獻身回饋社會,為贏取名聲,投進政府工作,服務市民,包括執行「杜絕劏房」政策,以今天的我打倒昨日的我。雅帆又不禁要問,立志盡攬名利是出任高官的先決條件?

女王生而為英國君主,早已榮華富貴纏身,沒有選擇職業的個人權利,雖然低調,卻能令人相信以服務人民為終身志趣。香港高官自幼努力向上,爭取最終名利雙收,擁有自由選擇職業的個人權利,則挖盡心思,亦言服務人民,從上述兩個案例,能否給與市民足夠信心?沒有選擇自由的,可以真心服務市民;擁有選擇自由的,卻祇訛騙服務市民。歷史就是一面照妖鏡,人性的美善醜惡,亦顯露無遺。

備註:本文部份資料,取材自《英國王室網頁》及《The Diamond Queen:Elizabeth II and Her People》,Andrew Marr 著作,Macmillan 2011年出版一書,謹此鳴謝。

這篇文章發表 於 星期三, 八月 15th, 2012 7:14 下午 在 邁向現代 Road to Modernity. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

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