26
一月

聖誕文告的家庭倫理

作者 : 雅帆   在 國際視野 A Global View

2011年8月6日至10日,英國發生連串大型「騷亂、縱火、搶掠」事件,牽涉範圍廣泛,覆蓋大倫敦區多個地域和市鎮,包括:托定咸 (Tottenham)、恩菲特 (Enfield)、赫尼 (Hackney)、布力斯頓 (Brixton)、修禾路 (Southall)、蓋萊頓 (Croydon) 等,並蔓延至大倫敦區以外其他大城市,包括:伯明翰 (Birmingham)、利物浦 (Liverpool)、曼徹斯特 (Manchester)、索爾福 (Salford) 等。最後總結共發生3443宗罪案,5人死亡,16人受傷,3100名滋事份子被捕,超過1000人被檢控,財物損失無法估計。

雖然騷亂的導火線是前兩天(8月4日)在北倫敦托定咸區一名小數族裔青年被警察槍殺,但根據事後各方人士分析,其箇中原因錯縱複雜,參與騷亂者大部份為青年人,尤令人感到憂慮。從宏觀視野,原因可涵蓋:經濟不公平 (economic inequality);社會及文化破壞 (social and cultural breakdown);道德倫理崩潰 (moral collapse);及法治系統失效 (failure of criminal justice system)。從微觀角度,原因也可包括:消費主義 (consumerism);以擁有名牌獲得朋輩地位 (peer status through owning top brands);失業 (unemployment);破碎家庭 (broken family);反警察執法 (anti-policing);童黨文化 (gang culture);削減公共開支 (spending cuts)‥‥等。

英國目前有三百五十萬名兒童來自單親家庭,其成長及對社會的影響令人關注,也是這次騷亂的原因之一。另一方面,首相「金馬倫」(Cameron) 強調,「道德倫理崩潰」亦是這次騷亂的主因,狠批「社會責任感下降」(a decline in responsibility);「自私心上升」(a rise in selfishness);及「個人權利凌駕一切的觀念不斷擴散」(a growing sense that individual rights come before anything else)。他並指出英國人曾為自由及尊嚴的個人權利而戰鬥及犧牲性命,但卻不會因為無須為個人行為承擔全部責任而戰鬥 (The British people have fought and died for people’s rights to freedom and dignity but they did not fight so that people did not have to take full responsibility for their actions)。

雖然騷亂的成因,是上述衆多長短期社會問題的整體結合,但經此一役後,英國對一些文明社會的副產品,尤其如何維持良好家庭關係和正確道德倫理,再度投入重視,英女王一年一度的聖誕文告,亦對此表示關注。

根據傳統,英國歷代君主會在聖誕日 (Christmas Day) 格林尼治時間 (GMT) 下午三時向全國及英聯邦人民廣播聖誕文告 (The Christmas Broadcast),旨在肩負精神領袖的角色,對人民表達關注和謝意,並加強國家團結。隨着科技進步,現在可同步透過電台、電視、互聯網及YouTube廣播(見網誌64〈永恆的聖誕文告〉及網誌215〈聖誕文告的宗教與體育〉)。英女王去年(2011年)的聖誕文告已是第八十屆,因應一年來社會的發展,亦特別以家庭關係、寬恕待人為主題,向國民提示家庭的重要,其重點如下:

「在過去一年,我和家人都看到英國、英聯邦及世界在許多方面展示的勇氣和希望,被其所感動。我們看到在艱難時,我們經常可從我們的家庭尋找力量;在逆境中,有時能建造新的友誼;在危機裏,社羣能超越障礙,讓人們凝聚在一起,互相幫助。(In this past year my family and I have been inspired by the courage and hope we have seen in so many ways in Britain, in the Commonwealth and around the world. We’ve seen that it’s in hardship that we often find strength from our families; it’s in adversity that new friendships are sometimes formed; and it’s in a crisis that communities break down barriers and bind together to help one another.)

我們經常可從家庭、朋友和社羣中找到勇氣的來源。誠然,不幸的是,人們往往在經歷慘劇時,最能散發最多及最佳的人性光輝。(Families, friends and communities often find a source of courage rising up from within. Indeed, sadly, it seems that it is tragedy that often draws out the most and the best from the human spirit.) ‥‥」

「‥‥在這些國家,友誼的精神明顯地能使我們充滿希望。在往昔的歲月中,彼此的關係曾經遭受扭曲,然而透過哀傷與寬恕,卻能發展成為長期友誼。在歷史的鏡頭透視下,我們必須審視今日的衝突,貢獻明天的希望。(The spirit of friendship so evident in both these nations can fill us all with hope. Relationships that years ago were once so strained have through sorrow and forgiveness blossomed into long term friendship. It is through this lens of history that we should view the conflicts of today, and so give us hope for tomorrow.)

當然,家庭並非僅指血緣親屬關係,它還經常被用來描述一個社羣、組織或國家。英聯邦就是一個擁有53個國家的大家庭,我們擁有一個共同的連繫,共同的信念,共同的價值觀和目標。(Of course, family does not necessarily mean blood relatives but often a description of a community, organisation or nation. The Commonwealth is a family of 53 nations, all with a common bond, shared beliefs, mutual values and goals.)

憑藉共同的連繫、信念,價值觀和目標,令英聯邦這個大家庭的成員可以真誠相待,和諧共處,分享英聯邦歷史,作好準備並樂意支持其成員。在維持獨立自主之餘,每個英聯邦成員經常以深厚的誠信友誼、溫情和互相尊重,彼此真情相待,共創未來。(It is this which makes the Commonwealth a family of people in the truest sense, at ease with each other, enjoying its shared history and ready and willing to support its members in the direst of circumstances. They have always looked to the future, with a sense of camaraderie, warmth and mutual respect while still maintaining their individualism.) ‥‥」

「‥‥在逆境中找尋希望,是聖誕的主題之一。(Finding hope in adversity is one of the themes of Christmas.) ‥‥」

「‥‥雖然我們有能力作出偉大的慈悲行為,但歷史告訴我們,我們有時亦需要將我們從魯莽和貪婪中拯救過來。神運用祂的寬恕能力,差遣一名獨特的人來到這個世界,他既非一位思想家,亦非一位將軍(雖然兩者同樣重要),他是一名救世者。(Although we are capable of great acts of kindness, history teaches us that we sometimes need saving from ourselves – from our recklessness or our greed. God sent into the world a unique person – neither a philosopher nor a general (important though they are) – but a Saviour, with the power to forgive.)

寬恕是基督信仰的核心價值,可以治療破碎家庭;可以重建友誼;可以重組分裂的社羣。從寬恕的行為,我們可以感受到神愛世人的力量。Forgiveness lies at the heart of the Christian faith. It can heal broken families, it can restore friendships and it can reconcile divided communities. It is in forgiveness that we feel the power of God’s love. ‥‥」

話說回來,英國家庭依據傳統習俗,每年聖誕例必佈置家居,包括大廳的聖誕樹和大門上的聖誕花環 (Christmas wreath),又為家人準備聖誕禮物,聖誕日下午舉行家庭聚餐等(詳見網誌221〈聖誕歌聲團圓夜〉),旨在團結支持家人,表達愛護關心,共享歡樂之餘,亦不忘關懷世界。然而,這些節日傳統,近年已由於身為父母的被繁忙工作所覊絆,漫不經意地忽略、遺忘、一切從簡。完美形式的家庭組合,在精神上卻已跡近「破碎家庭」!經歷去年的大騷亂後,英國人開始反思,應該是適當時候,重拾這些聖誕節日傳統,恢復聖誕家庭團聚的功能。

雅帆回想,自幼受目不識丁的母親所薰塗,在農曆新年穿上新衣,跟隨母親到祖母家拜年。成家之後,每逢聖誕及農曆新年兩個大節日,亦闔家穿着整齊,分別到餐廳與家人共嘗聖誕大餐;及到夫婦的雙親家中拜年。雅帆非常執着,就是身處外地,亦務必在大年初一至電母親和岳母拜年,繼續維持這些節日傳統,維繫家庭成員之間的感情。故此,每逢節日,祇見大量內地遊客到香港進行掃貨活動,雅帆不免懷疑,這些節日在內地人心目中的涵義?

物換星移,時代進步,是否表示可以拋棄一些維繫家庭的節日傳統?英女王去年的聖誕文告是否已經過時落伍?這些疑竇,在去年英國大騷亂發生之前,早應提出深思。其實,家庭連繫的破壞,道德倫理的崩潰,反社會行為的蔓延,又豈是英國的「專利」?中國和香港,還可獨善其身?

英女王去年的聖誕文告英文原文,行文流暢易明,道理深入淺出,現載錄如下,供各讀者參考:

「In this past year my family and I have been inspired by the courage and hope we have seen in so many ways in Britain, in the Commonwealth and around the world. We’ve seen that it’s in hardship that we often find strength from our families; it’s in adversity that new friendships are sometimes formed; and it’s in a crisis that communities break down barriers and bind together to help one another.

Families, friends and communities often find a source of courage rising up from within. Indeed, sadly, it seems that it is tragedy that often draws out the most and the best from the human spirit.

When Prince Philip and I visited Australia this year we saw for ourselves the effects of natural disaster in some of the areas devastated by floods, where in January so many people lost their lives and their livelihoods. We were moved by the way families and local communities held together to support each other.

Prince William travelled to New Zealand and Australia in the aftermath of earthquakes, cyclones and floods and saw how communities rose up to rescue the injured, comfort the bereaved and rebuild the cities and towns devastated by nature.

The Prince of Wales also saw first hand the remarkable resilience of the human spirit after tragedy struck in a Welsh mining community, and how communities can work together to support their neighbours.

This past year has also seen some memorable and historic visits – to Ireland and from America.

The spirit of friendship so evident in both these nations can fill us all with hope. Relationships that years ago were once so strained have through sorrow and forgiveness blossomed into long term friendship. It is through this lens of history that we should view the conflicts of today, and so give us hope for tomorrow.

Of course, family does not necessarily mean blood relatives but often a description of a community, organisation or nation. The Commonwealth is a family of 53 nations, all with a common bond, shared beliefs, mutual values and goals.
It is this which makes the Commonwealth a family of people in the truest sense, at ease with each other, enjoying its shared history and ready and willing to support its members in the direst of circumstances. They have always looked to the future, with a sense of camaraderie, warmth and mutual respect while still maintaining their individualism.

The importance of family has, of course, come home to Prince Philip and me personally this year with the marriages of two of our grandchildren, each in their own way a celebration of the God-given love that binds a family together.
For many this Christmas will not be easy. With our armed forces deployed around the world, thousands of service families face Christmas without their loved ones at home. The bereaved and the lonely will find it especially hard. And, as we all know, the world is going through difficult times. All this will affect our celebration of this great Christian festival.

Finding hope in adversity is one of the themes of Christmas. Jesus was born into a world full of fear. The angels came to frightened shepherds with hope in their voices: ‘Fear not’, they urged, ‘we bring you tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the City of David a Saviour who is Christ the Lord.’

Although we are capable of great acts of kindness, history teaches us that we sometimes need saving from ourselves – from our recklessness or our greed. God sent into the world a unique person – neither a philosopher nor a general (important though they are) – but a Saviour, with the power to forgive.

Forgiveness lies at the heart of the Christian faith. It can heal broken families, it can restore friendships and it can reconcile divided communities. It is in forgiveness that we feel the power of God’s love.
In the last verse of this beautiful carol, O Little Town of Bethlehem, there’s a prayer:

O Holy Child of Bethlehem
Descend to us we pray
Cast out our sin
And enter in
Be born in us today

It is my prayer that on this Christmas day we might all find room in our lives for the message of the angels and for the love of God through Christ our Lord.

I wish you all a very happy Christmas. 」

備註:本文部份資料,載錄自《英國王室官方網頁》(The official website of the British Monarchy),謹此鳴謝。

這篇文章發表 於 星期四, 一月 26th, 2012 1:25 上午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

2 comments so far

Mr K M Lam
 1 

很多謝作者雅帆介紹去年英女皇的聖誕文告。其中亦有帶出中國人經常提及的「患難見真情」道理。可是要從患難中才施以援手,才發揮助人精神,所要負出的代價實屬不菲。小弟亦極認同作者的感受很多地方(包括中國和香港)也面臨各種社會問題,焉能獨善其身。

無可厚非的是英女皇是篇聖誕文告除了有正面鼓勵作用外,亦彰顯不少了皇室成員的功勞和貢獻,同時亦增強英联邦國的凝聚力。謝謝

二月 9th, 2012 at 12:52 上午
雅帆
 2 

感謝 KM Lam 君的回應支持。雅帆特意介紹一部「團結支持家人,表達愛護關心」為主題的日本電影,名為《給弟弟的安眠曲》(おとうと;日本原片名弟弟;About her brother),松竹映畫製作,2010年柏林電影節閉幕電影,由日本著名導演「山田洋次」(Yoji YAMADA) 執導,演員包括:「吉永小百合」(Sayuri YOSHINAGA)、「笑福亭鶴瓶」(Tsurube SHOFUKUTEI)、「蒼井優」(Yu AOI)、「加瀨亮」(Ryo KASE) 等,亦是日本電影界向已故日本殿堂導演「市川崑」(Kon Ichikawa;1915–2008) 同名電影《弟弟》(Otôto;1960年作品;岸惠子主演) 致敬之作。

市川崑的舊作《弟弟》,描寫年輕姊姊(岸惠子)任勞任怨,少年弟弟(川口浩)反叛不羈,直至他患上肺病絕症,才明白溫情善意。

山田洋次在《給弟弟的安眠曲》借舊主題重新創作,兌變為新時代的一對老年姊弟。嫻淑姊姊吟子(吉永小百合飾)是在東京經營藥店的寡婦,與獨生女小春(蒼井優飾)和家姑三人同住。獨個兒住在大阪的頑劣弟弟鐵郎(笑福亭鶴瓶飾)卻不長進,成為親族避之則吉的害群之馬,醉酒胡鬧,外甥女的婚禮也被他出醜破壞。

吟子賢慧,獨力撫養弟弟和女兒長大成人,還要經常為他們的魯莽行為和觸礁婚姻奔走操心。吟子用盡一生積蓄,為鐵郎還債,誓言從此斷絕關係。鐵郎是否全無是處?及至鐵郎罹患絕症,晚景悽涼,入住善終院舍,仍發揮諧趣本色,為舍友帶來歡樂,衆人才發現他亦有優點。吟子和小春,原諒了鐵郎,於櫻花開始凋謝的季節,在院舍病榻旁邊,陪伴他走完最後一程。

這套電影描繪家人感情細膩深刻,發人深思,屬上佳作品,坊間 DVD 版本有售,雅帆鄭重推薦。

二月 12th, 2012 at 9:18 下午

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