12
十二月

幸福不丹人

作者 : 雅帆   在 國際視野 A Global View

「不丹」(Bhutan) 是一個香港人頗感陌生的名字,第一個令最多人聯想起的,大概是一對香港藝人到不丹跟隨當地傳統儀式舉行婚禮;第二個令人聯想起的,估計是當今在位英俊瀟灑的不丹國王,最近迎娶了一位貌美如花的民女為王后,編寫一個金童玉女的東方童話故事;第三個令少數人聯想起的,或許是不丹倡議及高踞世界首位的「國民幸福總值指數」(Gross National Happiness Index;GNH Index)。

「不丹」一名來自梵語「भोट-अन्त」,根據「國際梵語轉寫字母系統」(International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration;IAST) 轉寫為英語「Bhoṭa-anta」一詞,意思是「吐蕃的終結」。不丹位處亞洲南部,是中國和印度之間喜馬拉雅山脈東段南坡的一個內陸山國。全國地勢北高南低,北部山區氣候寒冷,高山終年積雪;中部河谷地帶氣候較溫和;南部森林密布,丘陵平原屬濕潤的亞熱帶氣候。全國森林覆蓋率為72%,列南亞第一;國內最高山峰是位於中國和不丹邊境地區的干卡本森峰,海拔7570米。

不丹建都「廷布」(Thimphu),全國人口70萬,主要為65%不丹族人和35%尼泊爾洛昌人,採用宗喀語和英語為官方語言。不丹是一個全民信教的宗教國家,國教是藏傳佛教金剛乘,主要是竺巴噶舉派,也有25%的國民信奉印度教。

不丹從7世紀起屬吐蕃之地,9世紀開始形成獨立部落。12世紀後「藏傳佛教竺巴噶舉派」逐漸執掌權力,實行政教合一。18世紀後期英國入侵,不丹淪為英國的保護地,1907年建立不丹王國,之後對外關係接受英國「指導」;印度獨立後,不丹於1949年8月與印度簽訂條約,對外關係改為接受印度「指導」。1971年不丹加入聯合國;1973年成為不結盟運動成員;1985年成為南亞區域合作聯盟成員。不丹目前祇跟25個國家及歐盟建立外交關係,卻並未包括聯合國安理會五大常任理事國。相對地,不丹與印度的關係最為密切,對外一切事務由印度政府指導,而印度在不丹境內亦有駐軍。

由此可見,不丹祇是小國一個,在世界舞台位置渺小,但其特別之處有二。首先,它的國王主動推行民主選舉政府,將不丹從一個君主世襲制的國家,轉變成為一個「君主立憲」議會民主制的國家。話說不丹旺楚克王朝的第四任國王「吉格梅.辛格.旺楚克」(Jigme Singye Wangchuck;以下簡稱辛格國王) 是一個賢明君主,胸襟和視野廣闊,深謀遠慮,曾直言擁有一個有效的管治制度比王位更重要,放棄一己之私利權慾,實行君主立憲,還政於民,安排不丹政體與西方接軌。

自1998年6月開始,前辛格國王著手改革國家政治體制;2001年開始籌備起草憲法;2005年3月倡議建立「兩院制國會」(bicameral parliament)。2006年1月18日,前辛格國王宣布於2008年首度舉行全國大選,依照議會制選出新政府,成為議會制國家。2006年12月14日,前辛格國王將王位傳予二十七歲畢業於牛津大學的王儲「吉格梅.凱薩爾.納姆耶爾.旺楚克」(Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck;以下簡稱凱薩爾國王),成為旺楚克王朝的第五任國王,也是目前世界上最年輕的國家元首。

不丹國會 (Parliament of Bhutan) 分為上下議院,「上議院」(National Council) 有25個議席,20席由民選產生,其餘5席由國王任命,議員不可擁有政黨成員身分。「下議院」(National Assembly) 目前有47個議席(最多可有55個),全部由民選產生,議員可以由政黨人士出任。2007年12月31日,不丹舉行首次國會上議院選舉,選民從48名候選人中選出20名上議院議員。2008年3月24日,不丹舉行歷史上首次下議院民主普選,產生首屆民選政府。結果「不丹聯合黨」(Bhutan Harmony Party) 贏得壓倒性勝利,在47個議席中贏取44個,而「人民民主黨」(People’s Democratic Party) 則大敗。

選舉結束後,不丹由君主世襲制轉變為君主立憲議會民主制,雖然國王仍是一國之首,但行政權已歸總理和內閣。國會除擁有立法權外,祇要三分之二國會議員通過,便可彈劾國王。雖然國會可彈劾國王,但從不丹國王的開明主動下放權力及受人民愛戴程度,相信他並非純粹是象徵角色,在政壇將仍有一定的影響力。

不丹的第二個特別之處,就是倡議及高踞世界首位的「國民幸福總值指數」。不丹最大收入來源是售賣水力發電予印度,於2007年的人均「國民生產總值」(GNP per capita)祇為1千4百美元,而根據聯合國2004年的全球人類發展報告,不丹在192個國家中祇位居第134位,經濟相對落後。但在2006年發表的「全球快樂排行榜」,不丹卻名列第8位,位列亞洲第一,小國寡民,安居樂業,這是因為不丹提倡以「國民幸福總值」(Gross National Happiness;GNH) 代替「國民生產總值」,強調心靈富足比金錢重要。

話說早在1970年代,前辛格國王已提出「應該關注幸福,並應以實現幸福為目標,而人生基本的問題是如何在物質生活和精神生活之間保持平衡」;他倡議國民幸福總值的理念,認為國民幸福總值比國民生產總值更為重要。1999年,前辛格國王頒佈行政指令,成立一個獨立、非牟利的社會科學及公共政策研究機構,名為「不丹研究中心」(The Centre of Bhutan Studies),旨在對政府的社會、文化、經濟及政治政策進行研究及提供回應,並協助其他機構進行同類研究等。2005年,不丹政府決定發展「國民幸福總值指標」(Gross National Happiness Indicators),而不丹研究中心的其中一項主要功能,就是研究國民幸福總值的理念釐定和實踐方法。

根據不丹研究中心的研究結果,國民幸福總值由「四大支柱」(four pillars of GNH) 組成,包括:政府善治 (good governance)、經濟增長 (sustainable socio-economic development)、文化保育 (cultural preservation) 和環境保護 (environmental conservation);這四大支柱涵蓋九個領域 (domains),在這九個領域之下,發展33項「國民幸福總值指標」(Gross National Happiness Indicators);根據這33項指標,再歸納構成單一的「國民幸福總值指數」(Gross National Happiness Index),指數分佈從「0」至「1」,以「0」為最低及「1」為最高。該九個領域及其33項「國民幸福總值指標」包括:

(1) 心理健康 (psychological wellbeing)–life satisfaction;spirituality;positive emotion;negative emotion;

(2) 生理健康 (health) –self-reported health status;healthy days;disability;mental health;

(3) 教育 (education) –literacy;schooling;knowledge;value;

(4) 時間分配 (time use) –work;sleep;

(5) 文化多元及適應 (cultural diversity and resilience) –speak native language;cultural participation;artisan skills;code of etiquette and conduct;

(6) 政府善治 (good governance) –government performance;fundamental rights;services;political participation;

(7) 社區活力 (community vitality) –donation (time & money);community relationship;family;safety;

(8) 生態多元及適應 (ecological diversity and resilience) –ecological issues;responsibilities towards environment;wild life damage;urban issues;及

(9) 生活水平 (living standards) –asset;housing;household per capital。

經過數十年的規劃,現任凱薩爾國王秉承其父親遺志,於2008年11月正式啟用「國民幸福總值指數」,全國施行,以此對應世界通用的國民生產總值。

不丹研究中心於2010年進行的問卷調查顯示,41%的不丹人在九個領域當中的六個或以上領域感覺「豐足」(sufficiency),因而可被視為「幸福」(happy)。在其他59%被視為「不幸福」的不丹人當中,他們在九個領域內有43%缺乏「豐足」;換言之,「不幸福」的不丹人平均僅在四個領域以下感覺缺乏豐足及僅在五個領域以上感覺豐足。最新的全國「國民幸福總值指數」則被評定為0.743。

有關不丹國民幸福總值的詳細資料,可參考其網頁,網址是–
http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/articles/

另一方面,剛於上月(10月)新婚的凱薩爾國王與王后「皮瑪」(Jetsun Pema) 應日本邀請,於本年11月15日至20日訪問東京、福島、京都6天,俊男美女的一對童話故事主角,在日本掀起一陣「不丹熱」,打聽不丹資訊的日本人暴增。不但媒體緊貼兩人行踪,還出現了「追星擁護者」(俗稱粉絲團),跟著國王伉儷到處走動,日本媒體全程跟拍報導,每天強調不丹榮獲世界第一的「國民幸福總值指數」。

日本政府自去年開始研究國民幸福總值,前首相鳩山由紀夫提出,日本要反思上個世紀經濟高速發展帶來大量家庭因父親過度工作而聚少離多的代價。再者,不丹人民的幸福感,也刺激日本國民反思,與經濟發展相比,更應追求國民的幸福度。究竟什麼是真正的幸福?如何在經濟發展的過程中保持國民的幸福感?這是不丹國王伉儷訪問日本期間,日本人向不丹國王提問最多的話題。

在這次訪日行程中,凱薩爾國王伉儷出席了東京「慶應大學」(Keio University) 向凱薩爾國王頒授名譽博士的典禮,凱薩爾國王在典禮中向大學生們致辭,主旨介紹不丹為何推行國民幸福總值。他首先帶出,先進科技和全球化的高速及多元發展,既領導社會的民主、團結、效率和溝通等改革進步;亦帶來生態環境破壞、貧富差距懸殊和健康安危威脅等世界議題。

他接着分析,現代社會祇有造作與冷漠的科技接觸,卻缺乏自然和親密的人際連繫 (natural and intimate human bonds),「增長」(growth) 更往往帶來不公平、不公義、環境破壞、全無節制而最終不能持續的消費。若要解決這些全球性問題和挑戰,必須依賴全人類社會的團結和努力,抱持真誠關懷自己和他人的態度,發揮「基本人類價值」(fundamental human values)。凱薩爾國王特別強調這些歷久彌新的人類價值,包括:「慈悲」(compassion);「誠信」(integrity);及「公義」(justice)。

他進一步表示,期望人們能以史為鑑,結合現代科技和人類價值,尋求解決威脅人類生活問題的方法;亦期望能實踐人類思想的基本改變 —一項改變人類追求增長的社會革命。他闡釋人類必須重新思考及重新釐定增長的正確用途,從而尋找真正的可持續增長。這種增長和發展的方向,也就是國民幸福總值的要義所在。

凱薩爾國王總結說,祈願學生們可憑藉智慧、勇氣和決心,掌握機遇和克服挑戰,緊找正確道德方向,享受滿足和幸福的生活。

綜合來說,在演辭中回應日本人對不丹推行國民幸福總值的興趣時,凱薩爾國王捨棄了沉悶理念和煩瑣數據的陳述,卻代之以精闢簡潔、感情豐富的言辭,聚焦闡明推行國民幸福總值的主要原因,就是一切「以民為本」,堅持基本人類價值,適當平衡物質文明與精神文明的發展,據此面對科技發展與經濟增長帶來世界的問題和挑戰。

不丹的君主立憲民主政治體制和國民幸福總值,都是由兩位賢明能幹、愛民如子的國王主導,從上而下的賦予每位國民,避過了暴力流血的爭取過程,不丹人民可說是既「幸運」;亦「幸福」。

日本一向尊崇佛教關愛慈悲,珍惜環境生態保育,重視國民心靈質素,仿傚國民幸福總值也就得心應手。

至於中華兒女的幸福泉源,一般偏重物質享受,輕視精神生活,每年聖誕拆禮物日,在英國倫敦名店門外,來自中國的人龍通宵排隊搶購減價名牌貨品,就是最佳證明。往年情況如此,今年、明年會否例外?莫非正如「佛洛伊德」(Sigmund Freud) 所言,中國人停留於「口腔期」(oral stage) 滿足的羈絆,不能自拔?中華兒女對國民幸福總值這個概念比較陌生,如謀改變,必須從基本意識形態教育開始;若按照目前狀況和步伐,則距離切實推行國民幸福總值,恐怕仍是遙不可及。

凱薩爾國王在日本東京慶應大學的致辭原文,載述如下,供各讀者參考–

【Acceptance Speech Delivered by His Majesty the King of Bhutan at the Ceremony to Confer Honorary Degree of Doctor】

「Honorable President, Honourable Dean, members of the Faculty, I thank you for conferring this honour upon me and giving me this opportunity to speak to the students of this esteemed university.

My dear students,

I have been King, but for 5 years. I can only tell you my own thoughts and experiences and hope that you take away something from it.

In contemplating how to be a good King for Bhutan, I realized one thing very early on. This world we live in is forever changing – the speed and vastness of the change is astonishing. One decade is unrecognizable from the last. What we take for granted today, was not imagined yesterday.

Take for example – our mobile phones – don’t we all love our mobile phones? We use our phones to capture special moments in our lives, we text our friends and co-workers, it helps us to conduct our everyday business, we get to speak to our loved ones and receive emails at the same time- This ingenious technology has completely transformed the manner in which we communicate with each other, its contribution to democracy, enhancing cohesion in society, driving up our efficiency… all of which is truly invaluable. When I was growing up, the closest we got to imagine the existence of such technology let alone ever using one was watching science fiction movies such as Star Trek.

Can you imagine life without mobiles? It’s almost unimaginable. And yet in the near future something else will come to replace this way of life.

This is why – I keep thinking about what our generation is going to do. How are we going to tread this world during our time? What kind of footprints are we going to leave as our generation leaves this world to our, yet unborn children?

I feel – in such a world, of great diversity and change – one thing is clear. The independence and detachment of an individual is growing. In a technologically advanced world, the need to build small, genuine, human relationships is no longer strong. A global village we may have become, but with islands of individuals. We have the tools for communication such as the mobile phone, but not natural and intimate human bonds.

The problems facing the world today – they challenge all of us equally. And the solutions to these challenges must come from a real sense of concern and care for others, for all sentient beings and, for future generations. We must care about what happens to this earth. That requires something more than leadership, science or technology – it requires Values.

Even as I simply glance through the statistics that reflect the condition of the world today, however accurate the information may be, it’s not a pretty picture:

First, lets talk about the environment:
If you listen to these numbers, it is alarming how reckless we have been and continue to be. Something as fundamental as the environment – the Earth – has been forsaken for profit:
Glaciers are melting, polar ice caps are thinning and coral reefs are dying
Climate change threatens the well being of all mankind
Today our consumption of renewable natural resources is 50% larger than nature’s capacity to regenerate
Every second, rainforests the size of a football field disappear
Water problems affect half of humanity
It is quite clear now, that we will be handing to our children, a world which has been, in so many ways, made worse than when we inherited it.

Now, lets talk about poverty:
In a world that has seen unprecedented material growth – the richest countries and people are richer than ever before:
The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for only 5 percent of global income while the richest 20 percent get 75%
24,000 children die each day due to poverty
About half of humanity – 3 billion people live in cities – of which 1 billion are confined to slums
The problems of poorer countries and people are often worsened by corruption – which impedes economic growth and prevents the nurturing of strong and fair political systems – both of which are key to increasing the opportunities for the poor to improve their lives
In developing countries, bribes alone total $20 to 40 billion a year – imagine what it could do for health, education and economic opportunities for the poor
Even in advanced nations, corruption has taken root – it is simply far more refined and sophisticated
Poverty brings hardship, suffering and untold misery. We have to be mindful that with such disparities come disharmony, conflict and ultimately instability on a global scale.

What about health?
1 billion people lack access to proper health care
11 million children under the age of 5 die every year from malnutrition and preventable diseases
300 million suffer serious sickness due to malaria and 1 million die each year
40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS

Then there is the global economy:
The unpredictability and imperfect nature of the legislation has caused instability and uncertainty in poorer countries affecting the already insecure livelihoods of their people
Coupled with military spending the world’s future is even more unpredictable and dangerous. World military expenditure in 2009 was estimated at $1.5 trillion or about $225 for each person in the world
The poor countries, most in need of resources are typically the ones with the weakest voice in how the global economy is shaped

Thus, we are only laying the groundwork for a world of inequality and resentment – of future conflict over resources and livelihoods – of continued strife, of terrorism and instability.

The list of global problems goes on and on. And coupled with the rapid growth of the world’s population – from 2 billion in 1930 to 7 billion today and 8 billion by the time we are in our mid-forties – each problem will be multiplied and made worse year by year.

I could summarize everything and put it simply – “The greatness of science and inventions, of great philosophers, of enterprise and industry has brought the world immeasurable benefits. Today we live a life far removed from that of our forefathers. Yet we face new and greater global challenges. Growth that overlooks inequality, injustice, environmental degradation, unbridled consumption is ultimately unsustainable. And it will continue to throw in humanity’s way greater problems, until the day, we will not be able to repair the damage.”

So what we do- when faced with such great challenges?

The solution to global problems will not just materialize from politics, from great leaders or from science and technology. The solution will come from us living as citizens of our communities, our societies, our countries and above all as citizens of the world. As citizens of the world, our unifying force – our strength must also come from something that is not bound by nation, ethnicity or religion – BUT from fundamental human values. VALUES of Compassion, Integrity and Justice. They are as old as mankind and we must bring ourselves to appreciate them and return them to their due place in our lives, our societies and in our governments.

My utmost hope is that our generation – with this unity of aspirations and values as human beings – and equipped with this huge arsenal of science and technology and the lessons of history – will seek the solutions, so desperately needed. I hope we will realize that we are at the cusp of a fundamental change of thought – a social revolution that will change the way humanity will pursue growth. Our generation is called upon to rethink, to redefine the true purpose of growth. And in doing so, to find a growth that is truly sustainable.

The letter from the President states that the honorary doctorate is for my promotion of the philosophy of GNH. What is GNH? Well, it is nothing other than that approach to growth and development that I have just spoken of.

(My dear friends, let me repeat, our generation has to redefine the true purpose of growth. And since I know you are all students of economics I place the responsibility of finding this alternative growth path on you. You must approach this task with sincerity and great sense of responsibility but above all you must first be good, decent human beings).

In conclusion – I pray that you, my dear friends, will find wisdom, courage and determination to overcome challenges and grasp opportunities; to give you a moral compass towards honorable lives. I pray that at the end of it all, you will all be able to look back at extraordinary lives free of regret and full of satisfaction, happiness and fulfillment. And that I will learn, year after year, with great pride, of all the good you have done as simple human beings.

Thank you, my dear friends, thank you! 」

附註:上文轉載自慶應大學相關網頁,網址是–
http://www.keio.ac.jp/en/news/2011/111122-1.html

備註:本文部份資料,取材自「不丹研究中心」網頁、「不丹國民幸福總值」網頁及「慶應大學」網頁,謹此鳴謝。

這篇文章發表 於 星期一, 十二月 12th, 2011 6:49 上午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

留下回覆

Name
Mail (will not be published)
URI
廻響