4
七月

總理演辭留存照

作者 : 雅帆   在 國際視野 A Global View

本年(2011年)6月24至28日,中國總理溫家寶出訪歐洲三站,包括匈牙利、英國和德國,當中自25日傍晚從伯明翰抵達至27日傍晚經倫敦離開的四十多小時英國訪問,精心籌劃,行程緊密,科學與文學之旅兼備;於27日在英國「皇家學會」(Royal Society) 發表題為《未來中國的走向》 (The Path to China’s Future) 的演講,尤為矚目。

話分兩頭,英國「皇家學會」全稱「倫敦皇家自然知識促進學會」(The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge),於1660年成立,是世界上歷史最長並從未中斷的科學學會;它是英國資助科學發展的組織,其宗旨是「促進自然科學的發展」,在英國起着「國家科學院」(National Academy of Science) 的作用。

根據其網頁資料顯示,學會的使命是:擴展知識的領域,領導發展及使用科學、數學、工程學及醫學,為人類的福祉及地球的利益作出貢獻 (Our mission is to expand the frontiers of knowledge by championing the development and use of science, mathematics, engineering and medicine for the benefit of humanity and the good of the planet.)

其優先工作則包括五個「I–Invest;Influence;Invigorate;Inspire;Increase」–(1)「投資」於未來科學的領導及創新;(2)「影響」政策的制定,給予最佳的科學忠告;(3)「激活」科學與數學的教育;(4)「啟發」對科學探索的欣悅、驚喜及振奮之興趣;(5)「增加」國際間接觸最佳的科學。(Our priorities are to–(1) Invest in future scientific leaders and in innovation;(2) Influence policymaking with the best scientific advice;(3) Invigorate science and mathematics education;(4) Inspire an interest in the joy, wonder and excitement of scientific discovery;(5) Increase access to the best science internationally。)

皇家學會是一個獨立的社團,組織不向政府任何部門負責,活動亦不必經過政府批准;但它與政府關係密切,政府為學會經營的科學事業提供財政資助。學會沒有自己的科研實體,它的科學研究、諮詢等職能,主要通過指定研究項目、資助研究、制訂研究計劃、通過會員與工業界聯繫及開展研討會等實現。讀者可到訪其網頁,參閱詳細資料,網址是–
http://royalsociety.org/

話說回來,基於皇家學會在國際間的卓越聲譽和崇高地位,溫總理被該學會頒發「查理二世國王獎」(King Charles II Medal),並獲邀在學會面對約300位聽眾包括皇家學會會員及各界來賓發表演說,可見其被受重視,舉世關注。

溫總理在演講中詳細闡釋,「未來的中國」將是:一個經濟發達、人民富裕的國家;一個充分實現民主法治、公平正義的國家;一個更加開放包容、文明和諧的國家;及一個堅持和平發展、勇於擔當的國家。

他繼續分析,走出和平發展道路,是中國政府和人民根據時代潮流和自身利益作出的戰略抉擇,是中國積極參與經濟全球化、最終實現現代化的必由之路。中國的和平發展,對世界不是威脅,而是機遇。

溫總理總結說,中國30多年的變化,得益於改革開放;中國未來的發展,仍要倚靠改革開放。改革開放,要貫穿中國現代化建設的始終,倒退沒有出路,停滯也沒有出路。他強調祇有堅定信心、繼續前進,中國才能建設成為富強、民主、文明、和諧的社會主義現代化國家,中國人民才能更加普遍和以更高水準歡享有尊嚴的幸福生活。儘管前進的道路上還會有各式各樣的艱難險阻,但這一歷史進程不可逆轉!

雅帆眼前一亮,驚覺講辭其中三段,都是有關實現中國的民主法治、公平正義;推進中國政治體制的改革;尊重和保障人權;及倡導學術自由,現輯錄如下:

「‥‥未來的中國,將是一個充分實現民主法治、公平正義的國家。在人類歷史上,在反對封建專制鬥爭中形成的民主、法治、自由、平等、人權等觀念,是人類精神的一次大解放。祇是不同社會、不同國家,實現的途徑和形式有所不同。人民民主是社會主義的生命,沒有民主就沒有社會主義。真正的民主離不開自由。真正的自由離不開經濟權利和政治權利的保障。坦率地說,目前中國社會還存在著貪污腐敗、分配不公以及損害人民群眾權益的種種弊端。解決這些問題的根本途徑,是堅定不移地推進政治體制改革,建設社會主義民主法治國家。

我們要尊重和保障人權,依法保障全體社會成員平等參與、平等發展的權利。我們要健全對政府權力的制約和監督機制,保證人民賦予的權力真正為人民謀福利。中國曾經是封建主義影響很深的國家,新中國成立後曾經歷十年“文革”的浩劫,在開放的環境下又出現一些新的情況和問題。發揚民主,健全法制,加強對權力的有效監督,仍然是一項長期而艱巨的任務。我們要創造條件讓人民監督和批評政府,使政府不敢懈怠、避免產生腐敗。人民的責任感和民主精神,將帶動社會的進步。人民參與社會管理和公共事務越多,推動社會進步的能量就越大。‥‥

‥‥我們要創造更加良好的政治環境和更加自由的學術氛圍,讓人民追求真理、崇尚理性、尊重科學,探索自然的奧秘、社會的法則和人生的真諦。做學問、搞科研,尤其需要倡導“獨立之精神,自由之思想”。正因為有了充分的學術自由,像牛頓這樣在人類歷史上具有偉大影響的科學家,才能夠思潮奔騰、才華迸發,敢于思考前人從未思考過的問題,敢于踏進前人從未涉足的領域。‥‥」

溫總理這篇重要演說,既彰顯了中國對追求普世價值的肯定;亦標誌着中國在建設民主法治、自由人權、公平正義的新里程。演說清楚表達了民主的理想和目標,雅帆當然樂觀其成,尚嫌還來不及表達喜悅之情;但進一步思考,則仍欠缺時間表和路線圖,如何落實概念?有何實踐措施?根據過往紀錄,郤難免令人擔心會否流於空泛宣傳?祇屬口惠而實不至?

本文特意將溫總理這篇立論精彩、情理感人的演說之中文原本照錄,立此存照,並將英文譯本同時載錄,方便在外地土生長的中華兒女細閱。若干年後,當人們重讀這篇動聽演說,同時審視當時中國在建設民主法治、自由人權、公平正義的狀況,則既可驗明溫總理這篇演說的虛實;亦能查察成績是否已經進步千里?再與其他已發展國家相互印證,且看中國的民主成就,可還尚欠多少落差?

另一方面,於前一天的6月26日上午,溫總理在英國文化、奧林匹克、媒體與體育大臣亨特,莎士比亞誕生地基金會榮譽會長韋爾斯教授、主任歐文博士等人陪同下,專程到訪位處英格蘭中部「渥里克郡埃文河畔斯特拉特福小鎮」(Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire) 大文豪「莎士比亞」(William Shakespeare) 的出生地和故居。當中的一些訪問花絮,亦頗堪玩味。

根據《新華網》報導,溫總理在探訪中感慨地說:「莎士比亞不僅屬於英國,也屬於世界;不僅屬於一個時代,而且屬於整個歷史。他的英名和作品永垂不朽。他永遠是我們交流的橋梁。」他在訪客留言册寫道:「給人生帶來陽光,給夢想插上翅膀」,表達了對莎士比亞的敬仰和緬懷。

溫總理當場告訴韋爾斯教授:「人類的溝通,最重要的是文化的溝通。在這方面,我們有更多共同語言。在中國,不少莎翁劇作,以京劇、話劇等多種形式上演。上海京劇院改編自《哈姆雷特》的京劇《王子復仇記》,已在德國、法國等國成功演出,並將於今年8月應邀在英國愛丁堡國際藝術節上演出。」

他同時向韋教授問道:「許多中國人熟悉英國的文學作品,不知道英國人對中國的文學作品知道多少?」韋爾斯教授思考片刻後回答說:「現在,越來越多的英國人開始了解中國文化,但還遠遠不夠。西方世界應該更多了解東方文明。希望有一天,皇家莎士比亞劇院也能上演湯顯祖的《牡丹亭》。」

誠然,現時每當一些英文著作面世不久,讀者可以迅速在兩岸四地找到其中文譯本閱讀。這個現象,孰喜孰悲?喜多於悲?抑或悲多於喜?留待讀者細嚼。相反地,由於中文文字艱澀難明,一字或一辭多義,增添不少中文英譯的困難。再者,要做好繙譯工作,譯者必須深入瞭解當地的社會風貌、歷史文化,假若祇能接觸表面的假象,尋找真相無門,又豈能獲得美滿成果?中國人經常掛在口邊的一句話:「外國人必須親臨中國,才可瞭解真正的中國。」中華兒女不妨捫心自問:「就這麼簡單,便真的可以和足夠瞭解真正的中國?」另外,現今移居外國的中華兒女,越來越多,他們的後代,可曾閱讀中國文學作品的中文原本或英文譯本?

隨後,溫總理在接受英國「天空新聞電視台」(Sky News TV) 記者的採訪時表示:「我從小就讀過莎士比亞的作品,看過莎士比亞的戲劇,但是直到長大後才真正懂得莎士比亞。莎士比亞的作品,不是讀一遍,不是讀十遍,而是要讀一百遍才能讀懂。中國人應該了解英國文化,英國人也要了解中國文化。中華民族有五千年歷史,文學作品浩如煙海。從這些作品中,你可以了解我們這個偉大國家苦難的經歷,也可以了解她奮鬥和壯大的過程。」

他繼續補充說:「一些政治家可以在談判桌上爭得面紅耳赤,但他們並不一定了解彼此的歷史,我決不做這樣自以為是的政治家。祇有了解和尊重一個國家的歷史、人民的創造,才能奠定與這個國家友誼的基礎。」

雅帆完全同意,每個國家的人民,必須瞭解他國歷史,才可瞭解該國文化;更重要的是,必須首先瞭解本國歷史,才可瞭解本國文化。雅帆驀然想起,香港立法會一位直選議員日前在記者會上,宣傳其政策研究中心何解起用「大舜」這個名字時,誇誇其詞、公開表示:「我哋第一個項目係同水質有關,用現代化方法改善香港水質‥‥大禹就治水,佢daddy係大舜,同埋呢個係華人熟悉的名字,就算唔係讀中史,細路仔都會識。」另外,一位自詡為政治家的香港特區政府領導人早前亦曾經說:「民主發展至極端會變成『文化大革命』。」上述兩位政治人物對中國歷史的無知和輕蔑,再加上近期中學生退修中國歷史的增加趨勢,能不令國家領導人憂心?令熱血香港人氣憤?

溫家寶總理在身處英國的文明國度,掌握適當氛圍和時機,宣揚科學與文學的國際視野,為建設現代文明中國鋪路,堪值廣佈世界各地的中華兒女細意揣摩。

中國國務院總理溫家寶於6月27日在英國倫敦「皇家學會」發表題為《未來中國的走向》的演講,演辭全文的中文原本及英文譯本,載列如下:

【中文原本】
「尊敬的納斯會長,
各位會員、各位使節,
女士們、先生們:

今天,我應邀訪問久負盛名的英國皇家學會,深感榮幸。剛才,英國皇家學會授予我“查理二世國王獎”。這不僅是我個人的榮譽,也是對中國科技進步的肯定,同時也是中英兩國科技界友誼與合作的象徵。對此,我向你們表示衷心的感謝!
英國皇家學會,是英國最高科學學術機構,也是世界上歷史最悠久的科學學會。牛頓、達爾文、愛因斯坦、霍金等科學巨匠,為人類科技事業發展作出過劃時代的貢獻。在座的各位會員,同樣以自己的傑出成就造福社會。我向你們表示崇高的敬意!

擔任中國總理以來,這是我第四次訪問貴國。這一次和上一次時隔兩年,感覺大不相同。2009年初,貴國遭受一場罕見的大雪,同時也經歷著國際金融危機的煎熬。我從達沃斯到倫敦一路走來,感受到一種憂鬱不安的氣氛。我當時說,“信心比貨幣和黃金更寶貴”。如今仲夏的倫敦,人們又恢復了往日的從容和自信。我對貴國應對危機所作的努力和可喜進展,表示由衷的欽佩!

我要告訴朋友們的是,經過這場國際金融危機的洗禮,中國前進的步伐更加穩健了。在這裏,我想說一件事。

2008年5月12日,中國西南部發生毀滅性的特大地震。當時,我站在震中汶川的廢墟上,對前來採訪的中外記者說,“過三年再來,一個新的汶川會拔地而起”。三年過去了,我們一邊應對國際金融危機的衝擊,一邊舉全國之力進行災後重建。上個月,我第十次來到震區,欣喜地看到:災區最漂亮的是住房,最堅固的是學校,最現代的是醫院,最滿意的是居民。我邀請在座各位朋友,有機會到中國汶川走一走、看一看。如果你們身臨其境,一定會為這裏發生的奇跡感到震撼,也會從中真實地感受到中國的生機和活力。

對中國改革開放以來的發展變化,世界上有各種各樣的解讀;對未來中國的走向,人們也非常關注。我願意借今天這個機會,談談我的看法。

上世紀80年代初,中國改革開放的總設計師鄧小平,曾提出我國現代化進程分“三步走”的戰略構想。第一步,基本解決溫飽問題;第二步,全面建設小康社會;第三步,到本世紀中葉,基本實現現代化,達到世界中等發達國家水平。2010年到2020年,是中國全面建設小康社會的關鍵階段。“三步走”戰略的核心和本質,都是堅持以人為本,增進全體中國人的福祉。沿著這條社會主義現代化道路前進,中國必將會有一個更加光明的未來。

未來的中國,將是一個經濟發達、人民富裕的國家。集中精力發展經濟,不斷改善人民生活,始終是中國政府的第一要務。我們將堅持科學發展,著力轉變經濟發展方式,走綠色、低碳、可持續的發展道路。我們將擴大國內需求特別是消費需求,進一步釋放城鄉居民消費潛力,使消費成為拉動經濟增長的根本動力。我們將更加注重改善民生,努力擴大就業,優先發展教育、衛生等公共事業,深化收入分配制度改革,增加城鄉居民收入,加快建立覆蓋城鄉居民的社會保障體係,讓各族人民共享發展成果。

中國經濟的振興和可持續發展,根本靠科技。中國政府已經制定並組織實施了國家中長期科技發展規劃。我們持續增加科技投入,近五年,中央財政共投入近1000億美元,年均增長22.7%。從今年開始實施的“十二五”規劃,我們力爭把研究開發投入佔國內生產總值的比重從現在的1.75%提高到2.2%。同時,我們將加快培育和發展戰略性新興產業。現階段重點培育和發展節能環保、新一代信息技術、生物、高端設備制造、新能源、新材料、新能源汽車等產業。所有這些,都將促進當前發展並為長期發展提供有力支撐。

從世界範圍看,克服國際金融危機,保證經濟的穩定、平衡和可持續發展,根本也要靠科技。當今世界正處於新科技革命的前夜,新技術革命和產業革命初現端倪,諸多領域正醞釀著激動人心的重大突破。這場新科技革命,必將進一步深化我們對宇宙自然和人類自身的認識,必將開辟生產力發展的新空間,創造新的社會需求,必將深刻影響人類的生產方式、生活方式和思維方式,從而從根本上改變21世紀人類社會發展進程。科技無國界。讓我們共同迎接這一偉大時代的到來!

未來的中國,將是一個充分實現民主法治、公平正義的國家。在人類歷史上,在反對封建專制鬥爭中形成的民主、法治、自由、平等、人權等觀念,是人類精神的一次大解放。祇是不同社會、不同國家,實現的途徑和形式有所不同。人民民主是社會主義的生命,沒有民主就沒有社會主義。真正的民主離不開自由。真正的自由離不開經濟權利和政治權利的保障。坦率地說,目前中國社會還存在著貪污腐敗、分配不公以及損害人民群眾權益的種種弊端。解決這些問題的根本途徑,是堅定不移地推進政治體制改革,建設社會主義民主法治國家。

我們要尊重和保障人權,依法保障全體社會成員平等參與、平等發展的權利。我們要健全對政府權力的制約和監督機制,保證人民賦予的權力真正為人民謀福利。中國曾經是封建主義影響很深的國家,新中國成立後曾經歷十年“文革”的浩劫,在開放的環境下又出現一些新的情況和問題。發揚民主,健全法制,加強對權力的有效監督,仍然是一項長期而艱巨的任務。我們要創造條件讓人民監督和批評政府,使政府不敢懈怠、避免產生腐敗。人民的責任感和民主精神,將帶動社會的進步。人民參與社會管理和公共事務越多,推動社會進步的能量就越大。

近些年來,我們在深化經濟體制改革的同時,積極穩妥地推進政治體制改革。在推進政府決策科學化、民主化,加強人民對政府的監督等方面,也有許多進步。例如,實行政務公開,政府預算公開,推行電子政務、聽證制度和專家咨詢制度等。我已連續三年在作《政府工作報告》之前,在網上同網民交流。今年春,我在新華網在線交流時,收到網民來貼40多萬條,手機信息11萬多條,頁面訪問量近3億人次。同這些普通民眾的交流,是心對心的交流,可以直接體察人民的喜怒哀樂和對政府的訴求,有利于改進政府工作。

未來的中國,將是一個更加開放包容、文明和諧的國家。一個國家、一個民族,只有開放包容,才能發展進步。唯有開放,先進和有用的東西才能進得來;唯有包容,吸收借鑒優秀文化,才能使自己充實和強大起來。

我們不僅要在經濟領域、科技領域繼續擴大對外開放,而且在文化建設、社會管理等領域也要大膽博採眾長。中國在推進現代化過程中遇到的諸多問題,如能源問題、環境問題、貧富差距問題、司法公正問題和廉政問題等,許多發達國家都曾經遇到過。對各國的成功經驗,我們要認真借鑒;對別人走過的彎路,我們不應重復;對世界面臨的難題,我們要同國際社會一道來破解。

我們要創造更加良好的政治環境和更加自由的學術氛圍,讓人民追求真理、崇尚理性、尊重科學,探索自然的奧秘、社會的法則和人生的真諦。做學問、搞科研,尤其需要倡導“獨立之精神,自由之思想”。正因為有了充分的學術自由,像牛頓這樣在人類歷史上具有偉大影響的科學家,才能夠思潮奔騰、才華迸發,敢于思考前人從未思考過的問題,敢于踏進前人從未涉足的領域。不久前,我同中國科學家交流時提出,要大力營造敢于創造、敢冒風險、敢于批判和寬容失敗的環境,鼓勵自由探索,提倡學術爭鳴。

我們歷來主張尊重世界文明的多樣性,倡導不同文明之間的對話、交流與合作。我國已故著名社會學家費孝通先生,上世紀30年代曾就讀于倫敦政治經濟學院並獲得博士學位,一生飽經滄桑。他在晚年提出:“各美其美,美人之美,美美與共,世界大同。”費老先生的這一人生感悟,生動反映了當代中國人開放包容的胸懷。

未來的中國,將是一個堅持和平發展、勇于擔當的國家。走和平發展道路,是中國政府和人民根據時代潮流和自身利益作出的戰略抉擇,是中國積極參與經濟全球化、最終實現現代化的必由之路。中國的和平發展,對世界不是威脅,而是機遇。中國已經成為世界經濟增長的重要引擎,近五年對世界經濟增長的貢獻率在20%以上。自2001年中國加入世界貿易組織以來,年均進口近7500億美元商品,為相關國家和地區創造了1400多萬個就業崗位。未來5年,中國進口規模累計有望超過8萬億美元,將給世界各國帶來更多商機。

21世紀應是合作的世紀,而不是衝突和爭霸的世紀。中國是世界和平的堅定維護者。我們一貫主張和平解決國際爭端,反對使用武力。中國將同國際社會一道,共擔責任、共迎挑戰,繼續推動國際體係朝著更加公平、公正、包容的方向發展。

女士們、先生們:

建設有中國特色的社會主義,是13億中國人民的莊嚴選擇。中國30多年的變化,得益於改革開放;中國未來的發展,仍然要靠改革開放。改革開放,要貫穿中國現代化建設的始終。倒退沒有出路,停滯也沒有出路。只有堅定信心、繼續前進,中國才能建設成為富強、民主、文明、和諧的社會主義現代化國家,中國人民才能更加普遍和以更高水準過上有尊嚴的幸福生活。盡管前進的道路上還會有這樣那樣的艱難險阻,但這一歷史進程不可逆轉!

女士們、先生們:

英國是世界上最早實現工業化的發達國家,在高科技、高等教育、金融服務、醫療衛生、低碳經濟等領域,都具有中國所需要的技術和管理經驗。中國廣闊的市場、豐富的人力資源和巨大的發展潛力,可以為英國經濟發展提供有力的支持。中國政府積極推進大型企業、研究型大學和科研機構同英國的合作,鼓勵雙方高端人才的交流和合作研究。

英國偉大思想家培根說過,“智者創造機會,而不是等待機會”。富有思想和智慧的中英兩國人民,一定能創造更多的機會,推動兩國合作邁上新的臺階!我對中英關係的明天充滿信心,更充滿期待!

謝謝大家!」

【英文譯本】
《The Path to China’s Future》–Speech at the British Royal Society
Premier of the People’s Republic of China, Wen Jiabao
27 June, 2011 London

「Sir Paul Nurse,

Fellows, your Excellencies, distinguished Guests,

It is a great honour to attend this ceremony held for me by the Royal Society and to visit this prestigious institution. The President of the Society presented me with the King Charles II Medal. It is not only an honour for me, but also a recognition of China’s advances in science and technology and a symbol of friendly co‐operation between China and the UK in science and technology.

The President said that I was a scientist. Indeed, thirty years ago, I was a geologist. I was one of those that entered politics but never left science. I’ve always watched the developments in science. I know the world today is no longer the physical world I used to know. There is now dark matter and even antimatter. Of those, luminescent matter makes up only a very small proportion. At micro level, it is no longer atoms or ions. We are in the era of the quark. In front of Nature, I feel small. I’m in awe of Nature and science. At the same time, I’ve been watching the work done by scientists and their major discoveries. It’s the scientists that have set the trend of the future. It’ll be scientific and technological revolution that’ll overcome difficulties in economic and social development. I hold scientists in the highest regard.

The Royal Society is the most prestigious science institution in the UK and the oldest science society in the world. It is often associated with such towering figures as Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, who have made epoch‐making contribution to the advancement of science and technology. I wish to also salute all the Fellows present today for your outstanding achievements in promoting human progress.

This is my fourth visit to the UK as China’s premier. During this visit, I have a very different impression from my last visit two years ago, in early 2009. Back then, the UK was hit by both a rare heavy snow and the global financial crisis. Coming to London from Davos, I could sense anxiety and uneasiness in the air. I remember saying during that visit, “Confidence is more important than currency and gold." But now back in mid‐summer London, I can see that people have regained confidence. I greatly admire the UK’s efforts and achievements.

As to my country China, it has emerged from the financial crisis stronger and is now on a steady course of growth. Let me give you an example:

You may recall that on May 12, 2008, a devastating earthquake hit southwest China. Standing on the rubbles in Wenchuan, the epicenter of the quake, I said to the Chinese and foreign journalists, “Come back in three years’ time, and you will see a new Wenchuan." Over the past three years, while fighting the global financial crisis, we have mobilized the whole country to carry out reconstruction in the earthquake areas. Last month, I visited these areas for the tenth time. I saw decent housing apartments, solid school buildings and modern hospitals, and the local people were pleased with the reconstruction. I hope you will visit Wenchuan, where you will be overwhelmed by the miraculous transformation, and you will personally experience China’s vitality.

It was in the same year that the Editor‐in‐Chief of Science, the renowned American scientist, Bruce Alberts interviewed me. The interview was all about science. After that, Science published two articles about me. One of them was entitled “A Scientist Premier”. I felt uneasy. It was a title I don’t deserve. But during our fight against the earthquake, I did put my knowledge of geology and structures to good use.

People outside China see the development and changes in China since reform and opening‐up in different ways. There is also an intense interest in China’s future path. I wish to take this opportunity to address this subject.

In the early 1980s, Mr. Deng Xiaoping, the chief architect of China’s reform and opening‐up program, proposed a three‐step strategy for China’s modernization drive. The first step is to ensure adequate food and clothing for the people. The second step is to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The third step is to achieve modernization and reach the level of medium developed countries by the middle of this century. The current period from 2010 to 2020 is a crucial one for China to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Putting people’s interests first and promoting the wellbeing of the entire Chinese people ‐‐ this is what the three‐step strategy is all about. Following this path of socialist modernization, China will embrace an even brighter future.

Tomorrow’s China will be an economically advanced country with its people enjoying prosperity. To pursue economic development and improve people’s lives has always been the top priority of the Chinese government. We will stick to scientific development, work hard to shift the model of economic development and achieve green, low‐carbon and sustainable development. We will expand domestic demand, particularly consumer demand, fully tap into the potential for consumption of urban and rural population, and make consumption the fundamental driver of economic growth. We will redouble efforts to improve public welfare, create jobs, and develop education, health and other social programs on a priority basis. We will deepen the reform of income distribution, increase the income of urban and rural households and speed up the establishment of a social security system covering both urban and rural residents. We will ensure that what is achieved in development will be shared by the Chinese people of all ethnic groups.

Science and technology hold the key to China’s economic prosperity and sustainable development. The Chinese government has adopted the National Medium‐and Long‐Term Program for Science and Technology Development. Government R&D investment has reached nearly 100 billion U.S. dollars in the past five years, growing at an average annual rate of 22.7 percent. Under the 12th Five‐Year Plan which starts this year, R&D funding as a percentage of China’s GDP will rise to 2.2 percent from the current 1.75 percent. At the same time, we will accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries, with priority given to energy conservation, environmental protection, new generation of information technology, biotechnology, advanced equipment manufacturing, new energy, new materials and new energy powered automobile. These efforts will boost our development at present, and provide strong support for our development in the long run.

Globally, science and technology are also crucial for overcoming the financial crisis and ensuring stable, balanced and sustainable economic development. The world is seeing the advent of a new revolution in science and technology and a new industrial revolution. Exciting breakthroughs will be made in many fields. This new revolution in science and technology will deepen our understanding of the universe, nature and ourselves as human beings. It will open up new frontiers, unleash productive forces, create new social demand and exert a profound impact on mode of production, way of life and way of thinking. The revolution in science and technology will thus bring about a fundamental change in the development of human society in the 21st century. Science and technology know no borders. Let us together embrace the arrival of this great era.

Tomorrow’s China will be a country that fully achieves democracy, the rule of law, fairness and justice. The struggles against feudal autocracy in the human history gave birth to the concepts of democracy, the rule of law, freedom, equality and human rights. These ideas have greatly emancipated the human mind, although they may be achieved in different ways and forms in different societies and countries. People’s democracy is the soul of socialism. Without democracy, there is no socialism. Without freedom, there is no real democracy. Without guarantee of economic and political rights, there is no real freedom. To be frank, corruption, unfair income distribution and other ills that harm people’s rights and interests still exist in China. The best way to resolve these problems is to firmly advance the political structural reform and build socialist democracy under the rule of law.

We are committed to respecting and protecting human rights. Pursuant to the law, we protect the right of all members of society to equal participation and development. We will improve mechanisms for checking and supervising government powers so as to ensure that these powers entrusted by the people are exercised in people’s interests. China was long under the influence of feudalism. After the founding of New China, the country went through the turmoil of the decadelong Cultural Revolution. Since China opened itself, some new developments and problems have occurred. To promote democracy, improve the legal system and strengthen effective oversight of power remains a long and arduous task for us. We need to create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government to make the government live up to its responsibility and prevent corruption. With a keen sense of responsibility and democracy, people will spur social progress. The more the people participate in social management and public affairs, the greater the momentum there will be to sustain social progress.

In recent years, while deepening the economic structural reform, we have actively and steadily advanced the political structural reform. Much progress has been made in making government decision‐making sound and democratic and enhancing public oversight of the government. For example, we have made government affairs and budgets more transparent and introduced such practices as e‐government, public hearing and expert consulting. During the past three years, before I delivered the Report on the Work of the Government each year, I had an online dialogue with the public. During this year’s dialogue with the public in spring on the website of the Xinhua News Agency, I received over 400,000 posts and more than 110,000 text messages, and the webpage was visited nearly 300 million times. I opened my heart to the people, and this direct engagement enabled me to learn about what is on their minds and what they want from the government. This helps the government improve its performance.

Tomorrow’s China will be a more open, inclusive, culturally advanced and harmonious country. A country or a nation will grow and progress only when it is open and inclusive. Only an open country can introduce all that is advanced and useful. And only an inclusive society can enrich and strengthen itself by drawing on the strengths of fine foreign cultures.

We should not only continue to open up in economic, scientific and technological fields, but also boldly learn from others in promoting cultural progress and social management. In its modernization drive, China has encountered various problems in the fields of energy, the environment, wealth distribution, judicial justice and government integrity. These are problems that many developed countries have run into before. We will learn from the successful experience of other countries while avoiding their mistakes. We will work with the rest of the international community to address common challenges facing the world.

We should create a better political environment and a freer academic atmosphere. Earlier, the President talked about a journey of ten thousand miles and reading through ten thousand volumes of books. That means allowing people to pursue truth, exercise reasoning and respect science, in which the mysteries of nature, the laws governing society and the true meaning of life can be fully explored. The spirit of independence and freedom in thinking is particularly important in academic studies and research. To me, discovering a problem is more important than solving one. It was in an environment of academic freedom that great scientists like Isaac Newton, who had a profound impact on human history, were able to bring out their best, probe issues not questioned by predecessors and blaze a new trail. In my recent conversation with some Chinese scientists, I called for creating an environment which encourages innovation, criticism and risk‐taking and tolerates failure, an environment that encourages free exploration of new things and stimulates academic debate.

We have always called for respecting the diversity of civilizations and advocated dialogue, exchanges and cooperation among them. The late Mr. Fei Xiaotong, a well‐known Chinese sociologist, received his PhD at the London School of Economics and Political Science in the 1930s. Having gone through many vicissitudes in life, he concluded in his late years that “The world will be a harmonious place if people appreciate their own beauty and that of others, and work together to create beauty in the world." These thoughts best illustrate the open and inclusive mindset of China today.

Tomorrow’s China will be a country committed to peaceful development and ready to shoulder its responsibilities. To pursue peaceful development is a strategic decision made by the Chinese government and people in keeping with the trend of the times and based on our own interests. Only such a pursuit will enable China to embrace economic globalization and achieve modernization. China’s peaceful development is an opportunity rather than a threat to the rest of the world. China has become an engine driving global economic growth, having contributed to over 20 percent of world economic growth each year in the past five years. Since joining the WTO in 2001, China has imported close to 750 billion U.S. dollars of goods every year, creating over 14 million jobs for relevant countries and regions. China’s import is expected to exceed 8 trillion U.S. dollars in the next five years, and this will provide more business opportunities for other countries.

The 21st century should be a century of cooperation rather than conflict and rivalry. China is committed to upholding world peace. We have consistently called for settling international disputes by peaceful means and opposed the use of force. China will work with the rest of the international community to undertake responsibilities, meet challenges and make the international system more equitable, just and inclusive.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

To build socialism with distinctive Chinese features is the solemn choice made by the 1.3 billion Chinese people. China owes the success of its transformation in the past 30‐odd years to reform and opening‐up. And China must deepen reform and opening‐up to sustain its future development. Reform and opening‐up will be carried out in the entire process of China’s modernization endeavor. To stall or reverse course is not an option for China. We must move on with confidence. Only by doing so can China turn itself into a prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced, modern and harmonious socialist country, and can the Chinese people enjoy a happy life with dignity in a more extensive way and at a higher level. Whatever difficulties and obstacles may lie ahead, they cannot block this historical process!

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The United Kingdom is a developed country and the first to achieve industrialization. Its advanced technologies and managerial expertise in research, higher education, financial services, public health and medical services and its development of low‐carbon economy can well meet China’s demand. On China’s part, its vast market, abundant human resources and huge development potential can help boost UK’s economic growth. The Chinese government encourages large Chinese companies, research‐oriented universities and research institutions to increase cooperation with their British counterparts. It also encourages more exchange of top‐level talents and joint research between our two countries.

Francis Bacon said, “A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds." The Chinese and British people, with vision and creativity, can certainly create more opportunities and lift our cooperation to a new level. I have every confidence in and great expectation for the future of China‐ UK relations.

Thank you. 」

備註:本文載錄溫家寶總理於6月27日在英國「皇家學會」發表題為《未來中國的走向》的演講,其中文原文及英文譯本均轉載自「皇家學會」網頁,謹此鳴謝。另外,本文錄述溫總理於6月26日探訪莎士比亞故居的講話,轉載自中國《新華網》網頁,亦在此鳴謝。

這篇文章發表 於 星期一, 七月 4th, 2011 5:55 上午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

One comment

David Cheng
 1 

It is the wish of every Chinese that tomorrow’s China will be a country that fully achieves democracy, rule of law, fairness and justice as stated by Premier Wen. Perhaps there is an even stronger wish that the definitions of the terms used above follow those in the Western world.

十月 5th, 2011 at 9:31 下午

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