「羅馬天主教教宗本篤十六世」(Pope Benedict XVI of the Roman Catholic Church) 應英女皇伊利沙伯二世的邀請,於本年9月16至19日,一連4天訪問英國 (Papal Visit to Britain),探訪包括當地的天主教和「英國聖公會」(the Anglican Church of England) 團體,被宗教界視為「大公合一」之旅。1982年夏季,「教宗若望保祿二世」(Pope John Paul II)曾作為期6天的第一次踏足及「牧訪」(pastoral visit) 英國,卻未能與當時的首相「戴卓爾夫人」(Lady Margaret Thatcher) 會面;至今才是教宗第一次「官訪」(state visit) 英國,除了與教徒及非教徒的普羅市民接觸外,又分別與三大政黨領袖會面,並在國會大堂向全體國會議員發表演說,他不單祇向教徒講話,更向全英國人民講話,具重大歷史意義。

這次教宗專程「官訪」英國,主題格言是:「Heart Speaks unto Heart」(可繙譯為「心靈相通」),英國天主教會並特別出版一本小册子詳細介紹,讀者可從「教宗訪英網頁」下載參考,網址是–
http://www.thepapalvisit.org.uk/

行程方面,涵蓋的內容多類:包括宗教、政治、教育等活動;出席的場合多樣:有公開的、有閉門的、還有乘「防彈透視專車」(Popemobile) 四次市區(包括愛丁堡、倫敦及伯明翰) 的沿路巡遊;接觸的對象廣泛:網羅皇室、平民、教徒、政要、男女老幼;羣衆的取態多元:既有支持者的熱情歡迎,亦有反對者的激烈示威,也有旁觀者的靜默冷漠。

這次教宗訪英帶來了宗教性、政治性、社會性和教育性的廣泛深遠影響,無論是身處世界任何角落的教徒或非教徒,都值得去瞭解其深層意義。可惜的是,雖然香港的天主徒及基督徒人數不少,並強調是國際大都會,要與世界接軌,但香港傳媒有關教宗訪英的報導,卻祇流於表面,譬如:教宗遭受英人冷待、教宗發表批評英國過度世俗化的言論等,深入的分析更是欠奉,則港人如何建立和維持國際視野?雅帆在本文提供一些背景資料和觀點,拋磚引玉,讓讀者進一步思考。

教宗訪英招惹不少「風雨」。首先,由於活動場地種類衆多繁複,加上所需經費不斷上升,衍生許多困難問題急待解決。首相「金馬倫」(David Cameron) 當機立斷,於本年6月初委任屬英國天主教領導人物、長袖善舞的「彭定康男爵」(Lord Chris Patten;前香港總督) 為顧問,臨危受命,聯繫有關教會、內閣辦公室、政府部門等機構,統籌這次大型官訪活動。

再者,此次訪問花費鉅大,除了政府龐大支出的1千2百萬英鎊須由納稅人支付外,天主教會還須籌募7百萬英鎊的宗教活動開支部份。在萬不得已之下,惟有向宗教活動參加者收取每張5至25英鎊的入場券費用,以減輕財務負擔。這些經費安排,惹來各界的批評;另外,今次收費入場券的銷售情況,與上次(1982年)免費入場券的派發情況比較,自然較以前失色,於是更進一步招來「英人冷待教宗訪英」的言論。

面對各方輿論的批評,彭定康不敢掉以輕心,於9月16日《泰晤士報》的〈教宗本篤十六世訪英2010專輯〉(Benedict IV The Papal Visit 2010) 特別撰文回應。他指出這次4天活動的經費,祇是去年在倫敦舉行1天「G-20高峯會」(G-20 Summit) 一半的支出;他進一步闡釋這次訪問將啟發重要討論,包括下列重點功能:

(1) 祝譽英國與歐洲能共同分享基督教的遺產,並彰顯不同信仰之間為未來展開對話的重要 (To celebrate the shared Christian heritage of Britain and Europe and to show the importance of interfaith dialogue for the future);

(2) 討論英國與全世界正在同時面對的問題 (To talk about the issues facing Britain and the world);

(3) 支持英國政府強調環境、發展與安全相互之間必須緊密連繫的觀點 (To echo the British Government’s view of the strong connections between the environment, development and security);

(4) 提出信仰可激發社會工作,包括天主教徒的福利教育和推廣社會凝聚與團結 (To highlight faith that inspires the social work in welfare education of so many Catholics, the work that promotes social cohesion and solidarity);及

(5) 開啟歐洲信仰團體與世俗分子的對話 (To open a dialogue between faith groups and secular elements in Europe)。

教宗於9月16日早上乘專機飛抵蘇格蘭愛丁堡機場,獲皇夫菲獵親王迎迓,立即前往愛丁堡「十字架宮殿」(Palace of Holyrood House) 與英女皇官式會面,隨後的主要活動包括:

(1) 主持「格拉斯哥貝爾郝斯頓公園」露天彌撒 (Celebration of Mass, Bellahouston Park, Glasgow),超過65,000人出席;

(2) 出席大倫敦區西南鄉郊「特威克納姆鎮薩里大學聖瑪莉書院」的天主教教育活動 (Celebration of Catholic Education, St Mary’s University College, Twickenham),超過3,500名學童參與;

(3) 前往倫敦中心區「蘭柏宮」,探訪「聖公會領袖坎特伯雷大主教威廉斯」(Fraternal Visit to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace);

(4) 出席「西敏宮」(即英國國會現址)「西敏大堂」的聚會,向上、下兩議院全體國會議員、4位前任首相、社會領袖發表演說 (Address to Civil Society, Westminster Hall, Palace of Westminster);

(5) 到訪「西敏寺」,與聖公會坎特伯雷大主教聯合主持黃昏祈禱會 (Celebration of Evening Prayer, Westminster Abbey);

(6) 於西敏區主教處所,分別與首相兼保守黨黨魁金馬倫、副首相兼自民黨黨魁紀立德及工黨代理黨魁夏雅雯作禮訪會面 (Courtesy Call from the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon David Cameron MP, Archbishop’s House, Westminster);

(7) 出席西敏區「西敏教堂」主持彌撒 (Mass in the Cathedral of the Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Westminster);

(8) 主持「海德公園」晚間露天祈禱會 (Prayer Vigil on the Eve of the Beatification of Cardinal John Henry Newman, Hyde Park),超過80,000人出席;

(9) 於「伯明翰科夫頓公園」主持「紐曼樞機」的露天宣福彌撒 (Celebration of Mass with the Beatification of Cardinal John Henry Newman, Cofton Park, Birmingham),超過50,000人出席。

教宗於完成宣福彌撒後,隨即乘車往伯明翰機場,出席由首相金馬倫主持的簡短歡送儀式,之後乘專機飛返羅馬。四天行程緊密,全部活動詳情、圖片及致辭全文,可參閱上述的「教宗訪英網頁」。

除了室內和戶外的聚會活動集合超過20萬參加者以外,教宗乘防彈透視專車在市區的沿路巡遊,亦吸引在街道兩旁接近34萬的羣衆,包括愛丁堡街道的12萬5千人,倫敦街道20萬的歡迎羣衆和1萬名遊行示威者。換句話說,未計電視機前的家庭觀衆,在全國每1千名英國人當中,約有9名(即接近1%)積極參與上述其中一項教宗訪英活動。從這些實際出席人數,「英人冷待教宗」的言論,不攻自破;香港人假若完全依賴本土傳媒的片面報導和選擇性引述,未有從多方面深入探索求真,則祇會繼續接收錯誤資訊和偏頗評論,更遑論建立國際視野了。

教宗訪英的意義在引發世界關注和社會討論兩項重大主題:宗教與政治的相互關係;及宗教自由。後者將留在續篇另文再述,本文集中談論前者。有關宗教與政治相互關係的論說,當中以教宗與女皇會面時雙方的演辭,及教宗在國會大堂會見國會議員和社會領袖時發表的演辭,尤具份量,鏗鏘有聲,更適用於各國社會,堪值細意玩味。譬如:宗教在國民身分及歷史自我醒覺所扮演的重要角色;不同信仰與國家合作和互信的重要;英國傳媒應承擔社會責任,推廣世界和平、人類發展和個人權利;英國人應繼續承傳一直引以自豪和受世人仰慕的價值觀,包括誠信、尊重、公正等;英國是一個多元民主國家,崇尚言論自由、政黨自由、法治、個人權利和義務、法律面前人人平等,這些亦同樣是天主教竭力追求的目標;宗教世界的「信仰」與世俗世界的「理性」,應該相輔相成,加強彼此持續對話,同為公共利益 (the common good) 和人類文明而努力。

三篇精彩演辭的重點,輯述如下,供各讀者參考:

英女皇的歡迎辭 (Queen’s welcoming speech;9月16日在愛丁堡十字架宮殿發表)
「‥‥Your Holiness, your presence here today reminds us of our common Christian heritage, and of the Christian contribution to the encouragement of world peace, and to the economic and social development of the less prosperous countries of the world. We are all aware of the special contribution of the Roman Catholic Church particularly in its ministry to the poorest and most deprived members of society, its care for the homeless and for the education provided by its extensive network of schools.」

「Religion has always been a crucial element in national identity and historical self-consciousness. This has made the relationship between the different faiths a fundamental factor in the necessary cooperation within and between nation states. It is, therefore, vital to encourage a greater mutual, and respectful understanding. We know from experience that through committed dialogue, old suspicions can be transcended and a greater mutual trust established.‥‥」

教宗回應女皇歡迎的答辭 (Pope’s speech to the Queen;9月16日在愛丁堡十字架宮殿發表)
「‥‥The monarchs of England and Scotland have been Christians from very early times and include outstanding saints like Edward the Confessor and Margaret of Scotland. As you know, many of them consciously exercised their sovereign duty in the light of the Gospel, and in this way shaped the nation for good at the deepest level. As a result, the Christian message has been an integral part of the language, thought and culture of the peoples of these islands for more than a thousand years. Your forefathers’ respect for truth and justice, for mercy and charity come to you from a faith that remains a mighty force for good in your kingdom, to the great benefit of Christians and non-Christians alike. ‥‥」

「‥‥Looking abroad, the United Kingdom remains a key figure politically and economically on the international stage. Your Government and people are the shapers of ideas that still have an impact far beyond the British Isles. This places upon them a particular duty to act wisely for the common good. Similarly, because their opinions reach such a wide audience, the British media have a graver responsibility than most and a greater opportunity to promote the peace of nations, the integral development of peoples and the spread of authentic human rights. May all Britons continue to live by the values of honesty, respect and fair-mindedness that have won them the esteem and admiration of many. 」

「Today, the United Kingdom strives to be a modern and multicultural society. In this challenging enterprise, may it always maintain its respect for those traditional values and cultural expressions that more aggressive forms of secularism no longer value or even tolerate. Let it not obscure the Christian foundation that underpins its freedoms; and may that patrimony, which has always served the nation well, constantly inform the example your Government and people set before the two billion members of the Commonwealth and the great family of English-speaking nations throughout the world. ‥‥」

教宗向國會議員和社會領袖的致辭 (Pope’s address to civic leaders;9月17日在國會大堂的聚會發表)
「‥‥As I speak to you in this historic setting, I think of the countless men and women down the centuries who have played their part in the momentous events that have taken place within these walls and have shaped the lives of many generations of Britons, and others besides. In particular, I recall the figure of Saint Thomas More, the great English scholar and statesman, who is admired by believers and non-believers alike for the integrity with which he followed his conscience, even at the cost of displeasing the sovereign whose “good servant” he was, because he chose to serve God first. The dilemma which faced More in those difficult times, the perennial question of the relationship between what is owed to Caesar and what is owed to God, allows me the opportunity to reflect with you briefly on the proper place of religious belief within the political process. 」

「This country’s Parliamentary tradition owes much to the national instinct for moderation, to the desire to achieve a genuine balance between the legitimate claims of government and the rights of those subject to it. While decisive steps have been taken at several points in your history to place limits on the exercise of power, the nation’s political institutions have been able to evolve with a remarkable degree of stability. In the process, Britain has emerged as a pluralist democracy which places great value on freedom of speech, freedom of political affiliation and respect for the rule of law, with a strong sense of the individual’s rights and duties, and of the equality of all citizens before the law. While couched in different language, Catholic social teaching has much in common with this approach, in its overriding concern to safeguard the unique dignity of every human person, created in the image and likeness of God, and in its emphasis on the duty of civil authority to foster the common good. 」

「And yet the fundamental questions at stake in Thomas More’s trial continue to present themselves in everchanging terms as new social conditions emerge. Each generation, as it seeks to advance the common good, must ask anew: what are the requirements that governments may reasonably impose upon citizens, and how far do they extend? By appeal to what authority can moral dilemmas be resolved? These questions take us directly to the ethical foundations of civil discourse. If the moral principles underpinning the democratic process are themselves determined by nothing more solid than social consensus, then the fragility of the process becomes all too evident – herein lies the real challenge for democracy. 」

「The inadequacy of pragmatic, short-term solutions to complex social and ethical problems has been illustrated all too clearly by the recent global financial crisis. There is widespread agreement that the lack of a solid ethical foundation for economic activity has contributed to the grave difficulties now being experienced by millions of people throughout the world. Just as “every economic decision has a moral consequence” (Caritas in Veritate, 37), so too in the political field, the ethical dimension of policy has far-reaching consequences that no government can afford to ignore. A positive illustration of this is found in one of the British Parliament’s particularly notable achievements – the abolition of the slave trade. The campaign that led to this landmark legislation was built upon firm ethical principles, rooted in the natural law, and it has made a contribution to civilization of which this nation may be justly proud. 」

「The central question at issue, then, is this: where is the ethical foundation for political choices to be found? The Catholic tradition maintains that the objective norms governing right action are accessible to reason, prescinding from the content of revelation. According to this understanding, the role of religion in political debate is not so much to supply these norms, as if they could not be known by non-believers – still less to propose concrete political solutions, which would lie altogether outside the competence of religion – but rather to help purify and shed light upon the application of reason to the discovery of objective moral principles. This “corrective” role of religion vis-à-vis reason is not always welcomed, though, partly because distorted forms of religion, such as sectarianism and fundamentalism, can be seen to create serious social problems themselves. And in their turn, these distortions of religion arise when insufficient attention is given to the purifying and structuring role of reason within religion. It is a two-way process. Without the corrective supplied by religion, though, reason too can fall prey to distortions, as when it is manipulated by ideology, or applied in a partial way that fails to take full account of the dignity of the human person. Such misuse of reason, after all, was what gave rise to the slave trade in the first place and to many other social evils, not least the totalitarian ideologies of the twentieth century. This is why I would suggest that the world of reason and the world of faith – the world of secular rationality and the world of religious belief – need one another and should not be afraid to enter into a profound and ongoing dialogue, for the good of our civilization. 」

「Religion, in other words, is not a problem for legislators to solve, but a vital contributor to the national conversation. In this light, I cannot but voice my concern at the increasing marginalization of religion, particularly of Christianity, that is taking place in some quarters, even in nations which place a great emphasis on tolerance. There are those who would advocate that the voice of religion be silenced, or at least relegated to the purely private sphere. There are those who argue that the public celebration of festivals such as Christmas should be discouraged, in the questionable belief that it might somehow offend those of other religions or none. And there are those who argue – paradoxically with the intention of eliminating discrimination – that Christians in public roles should be required at times to act against their conscience. These are worrying signs of a failure to appreciate not only the rights of believers to freedom of conscience and freedom of religion, but also the legitimate role of religion in the public square. I would invite all of you, therefore, within your respective spheres of influence, to seek ways of promoting and encouraging dialogue between faith and reason at every level of national life. 」

「Your readiness to do so is already implied in the unprecedented invitation extended to me today. And it finds expression in the fields of concern in which your Government has been engaged with the Holy See. In the area of peace, there have been exchanges regarding the elaboration of an international arms trade treaty; regarding human rights, the Holy See and the United Kingdom have welcomed the spread of democracy, especially in the last sixty-five years; in the field of development, there has been collaboration on debt relief, fair trade and financing for development, particularly through the International Finance Facility, the International Immunization Bond, and the Advanced Market Commitment. The Holy See also looks forward to exploring with the United Kingdom new ways to promote environmental responsibility, to the benefit of all. 」

「I also note that the present Government has committed the United Kingdom to devoting 0.7% of national income to development aid by 2013. In recent years it has been encouraging to witness the positive signs of a worldwide growth in solidarity towards the poor. But to turn this solidarity into effective action calls for fresh thinking that will improve life conditions in many important areas, such as food production, clean water, job creation, education, support to families, especially migrants, and basic healthcare. Where human lives are concerned, time is always short: yet the world has witnessed the vast resources that governments can draw upon to rescue financial institutions deemed “too big to fail”. Surely the integral human development of the world’s peoples is no less important: here is an enterprise, worthy of the world’s attention, that is truly “too big to fail”. 」

「This overview of recent cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Holy See illustrates well how much progress has been made, in the years that have passed since the establishment of bilateral diplomatic relations, in promoting throughout the world the many core values that we share. I hope and pray that this relationship will continue to bear fruit, and that it will be mirrored in a growing acceptance of the need for dialogue and respect at every level of society between the world of reason and the world of faith. I am convinced that, within this country too, there are many areas in which the Church and the public authorities can work together for the good of citizens, in harmony with this Parliament’s historic practice of invoking the Spirit’s guidance upon those who seek to improve the conditions of all mankind. For such cooperation to be possible, religious bodies – including institutions linked to the Catholic Church – need to be free to act in accordance with their own principles and specific convictions based upon the faith and the official teaching of the Church. In this way, such basic rights as religious freedom, freedom of conscience and freedom of association are guaranteed. The angels looking down on us from the magnificent ceiling of this ancient Hall remind us of the long tradition from which British Parliamentary democracy has evolved. They remind us that God is constantly watching over us to guide and protect us. And they summon us to acknowledge the vital contribution that religious belief has made and can continue to make to the life of the nation.‥‥ 」

首相金馬倫正面回應教宗在國會大堂的演講。他在歡送教宗的致辭中指出,教宗的訓示發人深省,引導英國人反思;他強調英國將建立一套重視社會責任的新文化:一切但憑良心,不要問自己的應得是甚麽?卻要問自己的責任是甚麼?不要問可為自己做甚麼?卻要問可為他人做甚麼?他進一步贊同:信仰是行動的力量泉源,能型造人們的信念、行為和目標;並激勵助人。其演辭的重點,輯述如下:

「‥‥A challenge to us all to follow our conscience to ask not what are my entitlements, but what are my responsibilities? to ask not what we can do for ourselves, but what we can do for others?‥‥」

「‥‥Your Holiness, this common bond has been an incredibly important part of your message to us. And it’s at the heart of the new culture of social responsibility we want to build in Britain.‥‥」

「‥‥For many, faith is a spur to action. It shapes their beliefs and behaviour; and it gives them a sense of purpose. Crucially, it is their faith that inspires them to help others.‥‥」

「‥‥You have really challenged the whole country to sit up and think, and that can only be a good thing. Because I believe we can all share in your message of working for the common good and that we all have a social obligation (to) each other, to our families and our communities.‥‥」

「‥‥And, of course, our obligations to each other – and our care for each other – must extend beyond these shores too. Your Holiness, in our meeting yesterday and in the discussions with the Papal delegation on Friday evening we agreed to develop the co-operation between this country and the Holy See on the key international issues where we share a common goal.‥‥」

宗教與政治,兩環緊扣,互為影響。上述演辭有關兩者的觀點,祇是舊酒新瓶,中外古今數不盡的思想家和政治家,亦曾經說過千遭萬遍,卻歷久常新,永遠適用。然而,利欲薰心,令人善忘,恆久不變的理論,還須經常提點,宗教信仰又可洗滌心靈,協助人們在迷惘的世俗生活中反思,期望能薪火相傳與新世代,生生不滅。

經歷金融海嘯一役,全世界尤其歐洲國家的經濟一落千丈,英國亦不能幸免,究其原因,道德淪亡、人心敗壞、營商手法不擇手段所致。英女皇亦憂心金融海嘯對國民的影響,早前特別傳召英倫銀行總裁入宮解釋,或許已種下女皇邀請教宗官訪英國的遠因。在此迷失的年代,英國政府假借教宗溫婉的訓示,通過宗教的包裝,重整社會道德良心,提醒國人必須珍視自由、人權、誠信、公義、平等、法治‥‥等傳統價值和文化體現,透過公民商議 (civil discourse) 和全民合作,追尋公共利益的目標。

套用於香港,在「迷債、八達通、收費慕道班」等事件發生之前,香港人對教宗的訓誡或許較難入耳;但在這些缺乏商業道德、詐騙違法事件屢見不鮮之後,香港人會否耐心聆聽教誨,考慮接納忠言?香港的宗教人士,包括份屬教徒的一衆高官議員,會否響應教宗的呼籲,放棄傾斜商界利益,帶領市民,坦誠面對墮落的事實,重整歪風?

有關宗教自由的討論,留待下回分解。

備註:本文部份資料,輯述自:《泰晤士報》的〈教宗本篤十六世訪英2010專輯〉;及「教宗訪英網頁」,謹此鳴謝。

這篇文章發表 於 星期五, 十月 1st, 2010 10:58 下午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

One comment

David Cheng
 1 

I read the article over the weekend and wanted to tell the author how much I enjoyed it.

十二月 20th, 2010 at 11:04 上午

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