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基督教與伊斯蘭

作者 : 海遠   在 國際視野 A Global View

基督教與伊斯蘭,是今日世界「文明衝突論」(Clash of Civilisations) 的兩名重要主角。兩者的衝突,有許多地緣政治、歷史民族、經濟利益等因素互相糾纏,宗教觀點的分歧,亦是主要原因之一。

要理解基督教,我必須推薦一本書:《Introducing Christianity》;by Anthony O’Hear and Judy Groves;Icon Books UK and Totem Books USA。這是一本以漫畫形式介紹基督教教義的書,文字精簡,書的第一章,就是《尼西亞信經》。

The Nicene Creed

“I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible;

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Begotten of His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father, By Whom all things were made; Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose Kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. And I believe in one Catholik and Apostolik Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead, And the life of the World to come. Amen.”

此書的第二章是為《尼西亞信經》加上一些註解。《尼西亞信經》成文約在公元五世紀,並非頒自「尼西亞會議」(Council of Nicaea, 325 AD),但確實反映了會議的決定;《尼西亞信經》為基督教定下了上帝「三位一體」及耶穌「神人二性」的教義。

在此我又必須介紹另一本書:《The Closing of the Western Mind – the Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason》, by Charles Freeman, Pimlico。在此書的〈Chapter 17- Eastern Christianity〉中說到,自「尼西亞大會」後,羅馬皇帝統一了基督教會的觀點,强力打壓異見者,許多人逃到羅馬統治範圍以外的「阿拉伯沙漠」和「波斯」。幾百年後,在公元七世紀,Another spiritual transition took place as the Arabs swept through the Holy Land, Syria, Egypt and beyond. Now at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem a different faith proclaims itself:

“O you people of the Book, overstep not bounds in your religion, and of God speak only the truth, The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only an apostle of god, and his Word which he conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit proceeding from him. Believe therefore in God and the Apostles, and say not Three. It will be better for you, God is only one God. Far be it from his glory that he should have a son.”

我無法把上述的英語文本中譯,因為涉及很多神學用語;簡單來說,伊斯蘭否定了「尼西亞大會」的決議,否定了「三位一體」(Trinity) 之說,亦否定了耶穌的「神性」說。我無意涉入宗教爭論,本文只提供一些觀點,來解釋今天做成世局動盪多種因素的其中之一。

這篇文章發表 於 星期二, 一月 30th, 2007 5:28 下午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

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