24
八月

The Peopling of the World

作者 : 海遠   在 國際視野 A Global View

網誌147〈亞當夏娃〉介紹從「基因學」中找尋現代人的足跡;本文則透過輯錄兩幅地圖來闡明人類踏遍世界的軌跡。

第一幅地圖(見附圖一)轉錄自以下書籍–
書名:《Out of Eden, the Peopling of the World》
作者:Stephen Oppenheimer
出版:Constable, London

此本好書是從「線粒體– DNA」(mitochondrial-DNA) 的線索來追溯「現代人」的足跡,所錄地圖就是根據此條線索,精確畫出現代人如何踏遍世界各大洲的軌跡。海遠嘗試用上萬語千言,亦無法更透徹、更完滿地詮釋這幅地圖所要表達的訊息,在無可奈何之下,選擇了最佳方法,就是將此精簡地圖和附載說明照本刋登,留待讀者自己用心細閱,此舉或有「盗用」之嫌,還望原作者見諒。

第二幅地圖(見附圖二)則轉錄自以下另一書籍–
書名:《The Journey of Man , a Genetic Odyssey》
作者:Spencer Wells
出版:Random House

此本又是另一好書,講解有關「Y–染色體」(Y–chromosomes) 的故事。作者Spencer Wells亦曾用同一題材,為「國家地理雜誌」(National Geographic) 拍攝電視特輯。本書中亦有一地圖,根據此另一條線索,追尋現代人進入世界各大洲的踪跡,訊息與前書極為近似。海遠亦基於同一原因,將此地圖和附載說明照本刋登,留待讀者自己用心細閱,還望原作者同樣見諒。

「線粒體–DNA」與「Y–染色體」是兩條追溯現代人足跡的獨立線索(詳情見網誌147),而兩者都是指向同一結論,可見這結論相當可信,這是「基因版」的「亞當與夏娃」(Adam and Eve)。

本文特別輯錄的兩幅地圖非常重要,它們清楚填補了「進化論」(Theory of Evolution) 與「現代史」之間以前的一片留白;亦為「由猿到人」的演化歷程詳盡寫下了「時間表」和「路線圖」。

特別聲明:本文輯錄的兩幅地圖,分別轉載自Stephen Oppenheimer所著《Out of Eden, the Peopling of the World》和Spencer Wells所著《The Journey of Man , a Genetic Odyssey》兩書,謹此鳴謝;並向兩位學者的貢獻致意。

附圖一:此地圖是根據線粒體–DNA這條線索,畫出現代人如何踏遍世界各大洲的軌跡,轉載自Stephen Oppenheimer所著《Out of Eden, the Peopling of the World》

附圖二:此地圖是根據Y–染色體這條線索,追尋現代人進入世界各大洲的踪跡,轉載自Spencer Wells所著《The Journey of Man , a Genetic Odyssey》

這篇文章發表 於 星期一, 八月 24th, 2009 6:05 下午 在 國際視野 A Global View. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

One comment

雅帆
 1 

海遠選載兩幅重要地圖,可用「原出非洲,殖民世界」一語作簡單總結,是通識教育的上佳素材。

雅帆亦推薦以下一本相同課題的好書,給有興趣的讀者參考和大學的通識教材:

《The Incredible Human Journey:The Story of How We Colonised the Planet》–By Alice Roberts–Bloomsbury

此書作者「愛麗斯.羅拔絲博士」(Dr Alice Roberts) 是一名合資格醫生,對進化解剖學 (evolutionary anatomy) 有濃厚興趣,並自1999年開始在英國布里斯托大學 (University of Bristol, UK) 出任解剖學 (Anatomy) 講師。她接受英國廣播公司 (BBC) 的邀請,從2008年春天開始的連續26個星期,跟隨BBC電視拍攝隊訪遍世界七大洲,找尋「現代人」的足跡,攝製成每集一小時共五集的電視紀錄片特輯,題為《The Incredible Human Journey》(不可思議的人類旅程) ,本年(2009)初在英國廣播公司電視頻道2台(BBC Two)播出。

上列推薦書籍就是這個電視紀錄片特輯的文字版本,其英文介紹錄述如下–

“Who are we? How did we get here? Part detective story, part travelogue, this riveting book retraces the greatest journey ever made – the migration of our ancestors out of Africa. Genetic evidence suggests that we all share a many-times great-grandmother, who has been called ‘Eve’ and lived in Africa some 200,000 years ago. Much later, between 50 and 80,000 years ago, a small group of her descendants left the continent – and went on to populate the rest of the world. But how did they do it?

Alice Roberts has been travelling the globe, following the trail of clues left by these ancestors, and piecing together the story of the human diaspora. From Sub-Saharan Africa, her starting point, she traces the footsteps of Homo sapiens into the Middle East, and around the shores of the Indian Ocean, all the way to Australia. She follows the trails north into icy Siberia, then east to China and west into Europe, before exploring the last continents to be peopled: the Americas. On her incredible journey, Alice visits some of the world’s least accessible places and hears the extraordinary stories of the indigenous people she meets along the way. She experiences some of the extreme physical challenges endured by the early hunter-gatherers as they roamed: from the chill of the Arctic to the searing heat of the red heart of Australia. She finds out how they survived – in the face of erupting supervolcanoes, the peak of the last Ice Age, formidable predators and even rival human species.

Alice also interviews scientists who are leading the field in palaeoanthropology and the affiliated disciplines of archaeology, geology and genetics. Preserved bones show what our ancestors might have looked like; stone tools and bone needles offer important clues to their survival strategies; whilst beautiful cave paintings, carved artefacts and beads reveal that, in many ways, these people from the deep past were just like us today. From the study of bones, stones and genes comes the clearest evidence of who we are – and how we colonised the planet.”

羅拔絲博士以其親身經歷和衆多探訪的精彩片段,配上顯淺動聽的英語描繪,分別透過其著作和電視特輯,向讀者及觀衆闡述現代人遍佈世界每一角落的足跡,豐富的內容簡單易明,兼且生趣盎然,既是研究人類進化史不可多得之作,亦是進修英語的趣味課外讀物。

雅帆尤感興趣的章節,就是羅拔絲博士訪問中國上海復旦大學遺傳學院 (Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China) 的Professor Jin Li(推測是金力教授)。金教授透過Y-Chromosome這條線索,收集了來自中國不同地區1萬2千名男子的DNA樣本,進行基因分析,希望可以確定現代中國人究竟原出中國北京人的「直立人」(Homo erectus)?或是非洲的「智人」(Homo sapiens)?實驗結果如何,雅帆在此賣個關子,留待有興趣的讀者自己尋找答案,詳情見上述著作第193至197頁。

八月 29th, 2009 at 12:27 上午

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