海遠幾個月前曾到「土耳其」(Turkey) 旅行十天,獲益良多,現透過本文與讀者分享。

土耳其現時是伊斯蘭國家,但在一千年前,它還是信奉基督教的「拜占庭(東羅馬)帝國」(Byzantine Empire),東羅馬與基督教的關係密切,海遠早前也曾說過,請參考以下各篇文章:

(1) 網誌16〈達文西密碼的另類解讀〉(2007年1月);
(2) 網誌17〈歷史由勝利者寫成〉(2007年1月);
(3) 網誌18〈基督教與伊斯蘭〉(2007年1月);
(4) 網誌79〈康士坦丁大帝〉(2008年4月);及
(5) 網誌80〈拜占庭與東正教〉(2008年4月)。

海遠在本篇介紹土耳其一個不太熱門的旅遊景點「伊茲尼克」(Iznik),首先從互聯網上引述一些英文介紹,海遠並不打算繙譯,因為達意的繙譯相當困難。讀者如能把這段英文的解說,結合上列的網誌文章,當能更易明白,海遠將於稍後以自己拍攝的照片再補充。

【引述開始】

〝Nicea (Iznik)
Iznik is a small town in northwestern Turkey, on the eastern shore of Lake Iznik. It is the modern successor of the important Byzantine city of Nicea (or Nicaea), where the famous Council of Nicea was held in 325 AD.

History
Founded in the 4th century BC by the Macedonian king Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Nicea was an important centre in late Roman and Byzantine times.

In 325 AD, the great Council of Nicea was called by Constantine the Great, who had converted to Christianity a decade earlier and replaced official persecution of Christianity with official support. ‥‥ The main reason for the council was the dispute over Arianism, the doctrine that Christ was not equal with God but a lesser divine being ‥‥

The Arian controversy was a Trinitarian dispute that began in Alexandria between the followers of Arius (the Arians) and the followers of St. Alexander of Alexandria (now known as Homoousians). Alexander and his followers believed that the Son was co-eternal with the Father, and divine in just the same sense that the Father is. The Arians believed that the Son shared neither the eternity nor the true divinity of the Father, but was merely the most perfect of the creatures.

Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Trinitarian issue of the nature of The Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, settling the calculation of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. ‥‥

‥‥The First Council of Nicea was held in the Senatus Palace, which sadly now lies beneath the waters of Lake Iznik. ‥‥

‥‥Another important council was held at Nicea in 787 to deal with the iconoclastic controversy (the dispute over whether the use of icons was appropriate or constituted idolatry). This is known as the Second Council of Nicea and the Seventh Ecumenical Council. It concluded that icons were worthy of veneration but not worship, and restored their use in the Byzantine Empire. ‥‥

The highlight for religious travelers and historians are the ruins of the 4th-century St. Sophia Cathedral, the site of the Second Council of Nicea. It is located in the town center. Renamed Orhan Ghazi Mosque in 1331 and badly damaged by earthquake and fire, the building was restored by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. ‥‥〞

【引述完畢】

海遠從互聯網上轉載曾於公元787年舉行「第二次尼西亞公會議」(the Second Council of Nicea) 的「聖蘇菲亞大教堂」(St. Sophia Church) 遺址照片(見附圖一),現再補充八張在旅行中拍攝的照片(見附圖二至九),正是上述建築於四世紀的聖蘇菲亞大教堂。由於這景點在2011年才被土耳其旅遊局重修,故此外觀有點出入。海遠要重申的是,「第一次尼西亞公會議」(the First Council of Nicea) 才最重要,因為這會議確立了基督教的最重要教義:「三位一體」(the Trinity),祇可惜第一次尼西亞公會議的地點已沉埋湖底,無法重現眼前。

海遠再提示讀者,在「伊斯坦堡」(Istanbul) 有另一座更著名的聖蘇菲亞大教堂,故此讀者如要在互聯網上搜尋有關資料,必須分別註明是「Ayasofya Iznik」或「Ayasofya Istanbul」。

在拉丁文中,「Sophia」可解作「知識、智慧」等,例如「哲學」(philosophy) 一詞可分析為「philo – love」和「sophy – knowledge」;中國學者直譯為「愛知學」,日本學者才譯為「哲學」。東歐很多地方都設有普遍以「聖蘇菲亞大教堂」為名的教堂,皆因「Saint Sophia」等同「Divine Wisdom」。

十四世紀時,伊斯蘭鄂圖曼突厥軍隊攻滅東羅馬拜占庭帝國,把基督教堂改建為清真寺。千年歷史,帝國興亡,宗教盛衰,在土耳其盡可體會。

讀者可在互聯網上搜尋以下的關鍵字:「Nicean council」;「Trinity」;「the Creed」;「Bible」及「Da Vinci Code」等,當可獲得更多豐富資料。

備註:本文部份資料及圖片,錄載自《sacred-destinations網頁》,僅此鳴謝。

附圖一:從《sacred-destinations網頁》轉載曾於公元787年舉行「第二次尼西亞公會議」(the Second Council of Nicea) 的「聖蘇菲亞大教堂」(St. Sophia Church) 遺址

附圖二:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂外貌近照

附圖三:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂門外指示牌

附圖四:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂室內一角

附圖五:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂「室內原本指示牌」,由於年代久遠,部份經已剝落

附圖六:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂室內另一角

附圖七:現今位處土耳其伊茲尼克的聖蘇菲亞大教堂「室內另一指示牌」,豎立於附圖五所示原本指示牌旁邊,是該原本指示牌的複製清晰版本

附圖八:聖蘇菲亞大教堂室內另一指示牌(見附圖七)的下半部份,展示指示牌的英文版本

附圖九:聖蘇菲亞大教堂室內另一指示牌(見附圖七)的上半部份,展示指示牌的土耳其文版本,而教堂平面圖3號位置所示的主教座席,即是可見於附圖六的半圓型遺蹟

這篇文章發表 於 星期三, 一月 2nd, 2013 10:38 上午 在 古典西方 Classical West. 你可以回應這篇文章透過 RSS 2.0 feed. 你可以 留下回覆, 或 引用 從你的個人網站.

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